Sunday, August 21, 2016

Inviter and Invitee Integrity Inverted

Below is a rough translation and some preliminary comments on Luke 14:7-14, the lectionary’s Gospel reading for the 15th Sunday after Pentecost. Your comments are welcome

7  Ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς κεκλημένους παραβολήν, ἐπέχων πῶς τὰς πρωτοκλισίας 
ἐξελέγοντο, λέγων πρὸς αὐτούς
Yet he was saying a parable to those who were invited, seeing how they were choosing for themselves the chief place at the table, saying to them 
Ἔλεγεν: IAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
κεκλημένους PPPart, ampl, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite 
ἐπέχων  PAPart, nms, ἐπέχω, 1) to have or hold upon, apply, to observe, attend to  
ἐξελέγοντο IMI, 3pl, ἐκλέγω, 1) to pick out, choose, to pick or choose out for one's self 
λέγων: PAPart nsm, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
1. The verb λέγω (to say) is very common in the gospels, particularly as it frames dialogue. What is curious about this verse is that in addition to having λέγω as a verb and a participle, it has another form of λέγω, ἐκ-λέγω. which means ‘to choose.’ (greekbible.com identifies the root as ἐκλέγομαι, which I believe is an error). I wonder if the ‘choosing’ was originally conceived as an ‘call out’ act, like saying, “Dibs on the chair of honor!” What is key throughout this pericope is that the places around the table matter and seating oneself or being seated at them is a declaration of some sort.
2. Another word, which is repeated throughout this pericope, is καλέω, which means ‘to call,’ but takes the meaning of ‘to invite’ throughout this text. The pericope can be divided into two sections, the first addressed to the invitees (vv.7-11) and the second to the inviters (12-14). I am identifying all of the καλέω verbs and participles in red.
3. I am making ἐξελέγοντο “choosing for themselves” since it is in the middle voice.
4. The narrator calls what follows a parable.

8 Οταν κληθῇς ὑπό τινος εἰς γάμους, μὴ κατακλιθῇς εἰς τὴν πρωτοκλισίαν, μήποτε ἐντιμότερός σου  κεκλημένος ὑπ' αὐτοῦ, 
“When you may be invited by someone to a marriage banquet, may you not seat yourself in the chief place at the table, lest there may be someone more honored than you who may has been invited by him,
κληθῇς  APSubj, 2s, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite 
κατακλιθῇς  2APSubj, 2pl, κατακλίνω, 1) in the NT in reference to eating, to make to recline  
κεκλημένος  PPPart, nms, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite
: PASubj 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
1. The dinner that Jesus is attending while telling this story is not identified as a marriage banquet. Perhaps those significant banquets were the most telling of how the pecking order gets established around more common table events, such as this dinner on the Sabbath at the house of a chief among the Pharisees (v.1).
2. The voice that Jesus uses in this parable is the subjunctive voice, which suggests possibility rather than declares what is (like the indicative voice). I am trying to demonstrate the use of the subjunctive voice with “when you may be invited,” “may you not seat yourself,” and “someone ... may have been invited.” Most translations do not reflect the ‘may’ language because the whole parable is posited as what might occur, rather than an indicating what is occurring.

9 καὶ ἐλθὼν  σὲ καὶ αὐτὸν καλέσας ἐρεῖ σοι, Δὸς τούτῳ τόπον, καὶ τότε ἄρξῃ μετὰ αἰσχύνης τὸν ἔσχατον τόπον κατέχειν. 
And, having come he having invited you also will say to you, ‘Give up this place,’ and then you will begin with shame to take the last place.
ἐλθὼν: AAPart nsm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come
καλέσας:  AAPart, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite 
ἐρεῖ : FAI, 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  
Δὸς:  AAImpv, 2s, δίδωμι, 1) to give  2) to give something to someone
ἄρξῃ: FMI 2s, ἄρχω, 1) to be chief, to lead, to rule
κατέχειν: PAInf, κατέχω, 1) to hold back, detain, retain 1a) from going away  1b) to restrain, hinder (the course or progress of) 
1. The verb ἄρχω means ‘to lead’ or ‘to rule.’ It can also take the form of ‘to begin’ and as such is like a helping verb to the infinitive that follows. In this case, ‘to begin to take’ the least seat. The verb is in the middle voice here, so most literally it might read “to begin yourself to take ...” I picture that this is like the slow turning to ‘the long walk of shame’ for that slump-shouldered braggart who confidently called dibs on the high seat and is now being sent to the lower one. 

10 ἀλλ' ὅταν κληθῇς πορευθεὶς ἀνάπεσε εἰς τὸν ἔσχατον τόπον, ἵνα ὅταν ἔλθῃ κεκληκώς σε ἐρεῖ σοι, Φίλε, προσανάβηθι ἀνώτερον: τότε ἔσται σοι δόξα ἐνώπιον πάντων τῶν συνανακειμένων σοι. 
But when you may be invited, having entered, sit in the last seat, in order that when the one who has invited you may come he will say to you, ‘Friend, move up higher to here.’  Then it will be glory to you in the presence of all those who are feasting together with you.
κληθῇς  APSubj, 2pl, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite 
πορευθεὶς  APPart, nms, πορεύομαι, 1) to lead over, carry over, transfer  1a) to pursue the journey on which one has entered, to continue on  one's journey  
ἀνάπεσε  AAImpv, 2a, ἀναπίπτω, 1) to lie back, lie down  2) to recline at a table
ἔλθῃ: AASubj 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come
κεκληκώς: PerfAPart nsm, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite
ἐρεῖ : FAI, 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  
προσανάβηθι  AAImpv, 2s, προσαναβαίνω, 1) to go up further 
ἔσται: FMI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
συνανακειμένων PMPart gpm, συνανάκειμαι 1) to recline together, feast together  1a) of guests 
1. The verb “it will be” is in the 3rd person, not the 2nd person. So I have translated it “it will be glory to you” instead of “you will have glory/ you will be glorified.”
2. Here the imperative voice comes into play. “Sit in the last seat” (spoken by Jesus) and “Go up further” spoken by the host are imperatives.

11 ὅτι πᾶς  ὑψῶν ἑαυτὸν ταπεινωθήσεται καὶ  ταπεινῶν ἑαυτὸν ὑψωθήσεται.
For anyone who exalts himself will be humbled and the one who humbles himself will be exalted.”
ὑψῶν  PAPart, nms, ὑψόω, 1) to lift up on high, to exalt  2) metaph.  2a) to raise to the very summit of opulence and prosperity  2b) to exalt, to raise to dignity, honour and happiness
ταπεινωθήσεται FPI, 3s, ταπεινόω, 1) to make low, bring low  1a) to level, reduce to a plain  1b) metaph. to bring into a humble condition, reduce to meaner  circumstances 
ταπεινῶν: PAPart nsm, ταπεινόω, 1) to make low, bring low  1a) to level, reduce to a plain  1b) metaph. to bring into a humble condition, reduce to meaner  circumstances 
ὑψωθήσεται: FPI 3s, 1) to lift up on high, to exalt  2) metaph.  2a) to raise to the very summit of opulence and prosperity  2b) to exalt, to raise to dignity, honor and happiness
1. This aphorism concludes the point of the imperatives that are in v.10 as well as the paradoxical teaching from the previous chapter, “Indeed, some are last who will be first, and some are first who will be last.” (13:30)
2. This concludes the portion that was addressed to those whom Jesus observed jockeying for the choice seats in the actual dinner that he attended.
3. This paradoxical aphorism is quite familiar in various forms to readers of the gospels, that the humble will be exalted or the first will be last or whoever seeks to save one’s life must lose it, etc. This “parable” poses an interesting point of discussion. Does the commonplace topic of the parable (choice seats at a banquet) point beyond itself to a larger, deeper, more sacrificial and costly way of life – such as taking up a cross or serving the least or giving to those who can never repay? Or, since the setting of the parable is a banquet, does the parable actually address commonplace events, like choosing a seat at a banquet? I am not unaware that banquet seating meant something significant about one’s place in the community, etc.; or that the ‘honor/shame continuum’ was vastly significant in 1st century culture. Still, we tend to think that parables tell everyday events that point to deep and heavy meanings, yet the occasion of this “parable” is the topic of the parable itself. That makes it a curious parable to me.

12  Ἔλεγεν δὲ καὶ τῷ κεκληκότι αὐτόν, Οταν ποιῇς ἄριστον  δεῖπνον, μὴ φώνει τοὺς φίλους σου μηδὲ τοὺς ἀδελφούς σου μηδὲ τοὺς συγγενεῖς σου μηδὲ γείτονας πλουσίους, μήποτε καὶ αὐτοὶ ἀντικαλέσωσίν σε καὶ γένηται ἀνταπόδομά σοι. 
Yet he also was saying to the one who had invited him, “Whenever you may offer luncheon or supper, do not speak to your friends or your brothers or your relatives or wealthy neighbors, so that they also would invite you back and payback may come to you.
Ἔλεγεν: IAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
κεκληκότι  PerfAPart, dms, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite 
ποιῇς  PASubj, 2s, ποιέω, 1) to make  1a) with the names of things made, to produce, construct,  form, fashion, etc.  1b) to be the authors of, the cause 
φώνει PAImpv, 2s, φωνέω, 1) to sound, emit a sound, to speak   
ἀντικαλέσωσίν  AASubj, 3pl, ἀντικαλέω, 1) to invite in turn 
γένηται  AMSubj, 3s, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being 
1. Now, Jesus moves from addressing the invitees to addressing the inviter.
2. I am using ‘payback’ not in the vengeful negative sense, but in the ‘tit-for-tat’ sense, and to show the similarities that the prefix ἀντι and ἀντα have in the words “invite you back” and “payback.”
3. μήποτε (or μή ποτε as two different words in some versions) is built on a negative (μή, which appears as a stand along negative particle along with three uses of μηδὲ in this verse), so is typically translated as “lest,” because it speaks of a negative turn in the events. But, of course, in this verse, payback invitations are often considered a positive and desired response. That is why I am making it “so that and letting the initial μη (in the “do not” phrase) continue to cast its shadow over what follows. Already what dinner-hosts consider positive and desired responses – payback invitations from the ‘right people’ – are called into question.

13ἀλλ' ὅταν δοχὴν ποιῇς, κάλει πτωχούς, ἀναπείρους, χωλούς, τυφλούς:
But when you may give a banquet, invite poor, maimed, lame, blind;
ποιῇς PASubj, 2s, ποιέω, 1) to make  1a) with the names of things made, to produce, construct,  form, fashion, etc.
κάλει  PAImpv, 2s, καλέω, 1) to call  1a) to call aloud, utter in a loud voice  1b) to invite 
1. The names for invitational events grows. In v.1, Jesus enters the house (φαγεῖν ἄρτον) “to eat bread.” In v.8 Jesus speaks of (γάμους) a wedding banquet. In v.12 Jesus says (ἄριστον ἢ δεῖπνον) a luncheon or supper [or, something like]. And now Jesus speaks of (δοχὴν) a banquet. While I don’t know the significance of Luke’s use of all of these different words, I find that he uses them to be curious.
2. Among poor communities in El Salvador, I’ve learned that some couples live together as a family without being officially ‘married,’ not because they are “living in sin” (the folks there don’t call it that and the Priests bless their relationships), but because a wedding is a very expensive affair and many families simply cannot afford them. I wonder if the various terms for meals might address various events, some exclusive and others more common.
3. Again we have a subjunctive verb (you may give) followed by an imperative (invite).

14καὶ μακάριος ἔσῃ, ὅτι οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἀνταποδοῦναί σοι, ἀνταποδοθήσεται γάρ σοι ἐν τῇ ἀναστάσει τῶν δικαίων. 
And you will be blessed, because they do not have [the means] to pay you back, for it will be paid back to you in the resurrection of the righteous.” 
ἔσῃ FMI, 2s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
ἔχουσιν  PAI, 3pl, ἔχω, 1) to have, i.e. to hold
ἀνταποδοῦναί: AAInf, ἀνταποδίδωμι, 1) in a good sense, to repay, requite  2) in a bad sense, penalty and vengeance
ἀνταποδοθήσεται FPI, 3pl, ἀνταποδίδωμι, 1) in a good sense, to repay, requite 2) in a bad sense, penalty and vengeance
1. I inserted the words ‘the means’ because while I am trying to preserve the verb “have” I do not intend this to read “they don’t have to pay you back” as if there is no obligation. It is less a matter of obligation as means. It’s not that they will not; it is that they cannot.
2. Again, it seems counter-intuitive to say that “you will be blessed because they cannot pay you back,” unless one has a sense of the eternal that Jesus brings to his teachings. It is not strict altruism, because it does presume a reward and not just “do this because it’s the right thing to do.” It could be something like ‘future-time altruism,’ the expectation that God will right all of the wrongs at the resurrection.  
3. This sense of expecting a reward in the future, because payback (or justice, if you will) is not always immediate, shows up in philosophical discourse. Immanuel Kant postulated the immortality of the soul precisely because good deeds often go unrewarded and evil deeds often go unpunished in life as we know it. The philosophical value at stake is whether there is a moral structure to the universe. Kant argued that if there is such a thing as morality and if it is true (and not just an inspiring idea) and since there is not evident reward or punishment in this life, that is enough to suppose that they must be more to the human soul than this life. I am not suggesting that Jesus embraces the philosophical notion of ‘the immortality of the soul’ or that he has the intention of writing a critique of practical philosophy, I do think his presumption about the resurrection carries many of the same assumptions that Kant’s argument regarding immortality does.
4. For those who may not be inclined to believe in the afterlife, especially as the place of ultimate reward and punishment, the problems that the doctrines of immortality and resurrection are trying to address still merit consideration. Is there a moral fabric to the universe? Or, is there not? I think this is the real question behind many politically charged questions in the public sphere today.

I find these parables to show what is meant by the paradoxical teachings in Luke of losing one’s life in order to save it (9:24) of the first becoming the last (13:30) and the humble becoming exalted (14:10). There is, throughout these teachings, the underlying trust that God is just and that, rather than striving for immediate payback, one can trust that God will be faithful in rewarding acts of self-giving. In the first parable, the result is immediate and results in shaming/honoring. In the second parable, the result is not immediate, but attributed to the power of the resurrection. What is not evident here is a strictly deontological teaching – “invite the poor, the blind, etc. because it is your duty” or “because it is the right thing.” These teachings seem to accept that to extend oneself in giving a meal rightly results in some kind of payback. Does that make this parable something like a ‘wisdom saying’ rather than something like ‘the law’?


Monday, August 15, 2016

A Bound Woman Bound to Be Loosed from Bondage

Below is a rough translation and some initial comments of Luke 13:10-17, the gospel reading for 14th Sunday after Pentecost. Your comments are welcomed.

I am a little uncomfortable with subtitles for this text reading: “Jesus heals a crippled woman,” because those are not Luke’s terms. ‘Heal’ is the term used by the chief of the synagogue, not the narrator or Jesus. And the term “crippled,” besides being out of vogue, is fairly neutral regarding agency, while Luke is rather explicit that this crippling is ‘spirit’-driven (v.11) and an act of Satan (v.16). Furthermore, while she is nameless, she is named as a “daughter of Abraham,” so she is not entirely anonymous. And consider the words that “this daughter of Abraham was bound to be loosed,” in Jesus’ question, indicating that this was God’s intention. When I see this subtitle, I almost hear, “Sigh. Another healing story.” There is so much more at work here. But, perhaps I am getting ahead of myself.

My attention on this text has been drawn to the words δέω and λύω (bind and loose), as you will see below. To begin, note that δέω and λύω are the same verbs found in Matthew 16:19, where Jesus says to Peter, “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.” An interesting entry about binding and loosing is found in this article, which says that these twin powers that were customarily given to Pharisees.  http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/3307-binding-and-loosing.

10 ην δὲ διδάσκων ἐν μιᾷ τῶν συναγωγῶν ἐν τοῖς σάββασιν.
Yet while teaching, he was in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath.
ην: IAI, 3s of εἰμί, to be
διδάσκων: PAPart, nms, διδάσκω 1) to teach  1a) to hold discourse with others in order to instruct them, deliver didactic discourses  
1. The setting for what follows is the synagogue on the Sabbath, both of which factor into the controversy. The main verb here is ‘was’ (not ‘teaching, which is a participle), which may signify that Jesus being in the synagogue on the Sabbath is the point, more than that he was teaching.

 11καὶ ἰδοὺ γυνὴ πνεῦμα ἔχουσα ἀσθενείας ἔτη δεκαοκτώ, καὶ ἦν συγκύπτουσα καὶ μὴ δυναμένη ἀνακύψαι εἰς τὸ παντελές.
And behold a woman having a spirit of infirmity 18 years, even was bent together and not able to bend up into all-fullness.
ἔχουσα : PAPart, nfs, ἔχω, 1) to have, i.e. to hold 
ἰδοὺ: AMImpv εἶδον 1) to see 2) a particle serving to call attention, "behold!"
ην: IAI, 3s of εἰμί, to be
συγκύπτουσα : PAPart, nfs, συγκύπτω, 1) to bend completely forwards, to be bowed together 
δυναμένη : PMPart, nfs, δύναμαι, 1) to be able, 
ἀνακύψαι : AAInf, ἀνακύπτω, 1) to raise or lift one's self up 
1. I am using ‘bend together’ and ‘bend up’ to show that συγκύπτω and ἀνακύπτω have the same root.
2. The word παντελές would literally be all (παν) fullness (τελές).
3. It would be good to know what the narrator really intends to say with the phrase “spirit of infirmity” (πνεῦμα … ἀσθενείας). Was it simply a way of saying that she was disabled? Does it signify a “1st century cosmology of superstition”? Is it a way of identifying something that is not as it should be, but without being able to identify a material cause?
4. A next set of questions would be: What connotations does the phrase “spirit of infirmity” raise in the mind of the reader/hearer of this story? Would it call the integrity of the story into question, because we might attribute this woman’s posture to a lack of calcium, rather than a spirit? Would it cause us to categorize this story as one of ‘those’ stories that lacks relevant connection to our way of living? Should we translate out the “spirit” part of the text, if the narrator’s intent by that term is not how we typically end up hearing that term?
I genuinely do not know the answers to these questions.
5. The word “Behold!” (ἰδοὺ, sadly missing from the NIV) has the same root at the verb “seeing” (ἰδὼν) in the next verse. The narrator calls the reader to behold the woman whom Jesus is beholding.

12 ἰδὼν δὲ αὐτὴν  Ἰησοῦς προσεφώνησεν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, Γύναι, ἀπολέλυσαι 
τῆς ἀσθενείας σου,
Yet seeing her, Jesus called and said to her, “Woman, you have been loosed from your infirmity.”
ἰδὼν: AAPart nsm, εἴδω, to perceive
προσεφώνησεν: AAI 3s, προσφωνέω, 1) to call to, to address by
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
ἀπολέλυσαι: PerfPI, 2s, ἀπολύω 1. to let loose from, loosen, unbind; free, relieve from; release, let go free.
1. The root of the verb ἀπολέλυσαι (“loosed”) is ἀπολύω, a form of λύω, which is important to this pericope.   

 13 καὶ ἐπέθηκεν αὐτῇ τὰς χεῖρας: καὶ παραχρῆμα ἀνωρθώθη, καὶ ἐδόξαζεν 
τὸν θεόν.
And he laid hands on her; and instantly she was straightened, and was glorifying God. 
ἐπέθηκεν : AAI 3s, ἐπιτίθημι, to put or lay upon 
ἀνωρθώθη: API, 3s, ἀνορθόω, 1) to set up, make erect  1a) of a deformed person  2) to rear again, build anew
ἐδόξαζεν: IAI, 3s, δοξάζω, 1) to think, suppose, be of opinion 2) to praise, extol, magnify, celebrate  
1. I like how the only other use of the verb “straightened” in Luke/Acts is a reference to God re-building the fallen tabernacle of David in Acts 15:16.
2. The English word “was” is a little deceptive. In the phrase “was straightened” it indicates the passive voice. In the phrase “was glorifying” it indicates the imperfect tense. I’m seeing how the quirks of my first language might pose problems to people of other tongues.
3. The word “instantly” here (παραχρῆμα) is not the term that Mark uses frequently (εὐθὺς).
4. There is a curious sequence of “You have been loosed,” then Jesus lays hands on her, then she is straightened immediately. It makes me wonder whether Jesus was pronouncing her reality (which had already been given) and by touching her enabling her to live it (so that she immediately experienced it.) (I’m thinking back to last week’s verse, where Jesus says that he has a fire to kindle, but wishes that it were already kindled. If there had been faith in the world or among God’s people, perhaps she would have experienced being loosed from Satan’s grasp eighteen years ago.

14 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ  ἀρχισυνάγωγος, ἀγανακτῶν ὅτι τῷ σαββάτῳ ἐθεράπευσεν  Ἰησοῦς, ἔλεγεν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὅτι Ἓξ ἡμέραι εἰσὶν ἐν αἷς δεῖ 
ἐργάζεσθαι: ἐν αὐταῖς οὖν ἐρχόμενοι θεραπεύεσθε καὶ μὴ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ 
σαββάτου.
Yet having responded, the ruler of the synagogue, being indignant that Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, was saying to the crowd, “There are six days in which it is necessary to work; therefore in them while coming be healed and not on the day of the Sabbath.” 
ἀποκριθεὶς: APPart, nms, ἀποκρίνομαι, 1) to give an answer to a question proposed, to answer 
ἀγανακτῶν : PAPart, nms, ἀγανακτέω, 1) to be indignant, moved with indignation, be very displeased
ἐθεράπευσεν: AAI 3s, θεραπεύω, 1) to serve, do service  2) to heal, cure, restore to health
ἔλεγεν: IAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
εἰσὶν: PAI 3p, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
δεῖ: PAI 3s, δέω, 1) to bind tie, fasten
ἐργάζεσθαι: PMInf, ἐργάζομαι, 1) to work, labour, do work
ἐρχόμενοι: PMPart npm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come
θεραπεύεσθε: PPImpv 2p, θεραπεύω, 1) to serve, do service  2) to heal, cure, restore to health
1. I am noticing particularly that the verb ἔλεγεν is in the imperfect and not the aorist tense. That would indicate ‘was saying’ instead of ‘said.’ This might have been a much longer protest and discourse than this one sentence summary.
2. The verb δεῖ has a lot of significance in some texts, such as Jesus saying “it is necessary for the Son of Man to suffer....” It is often simply translated as “must.” The root suggests a binding, a necessity, similar to the (biblically informed) southern expressions of my youth, “I am bound and determined” or “I am bound for the promised land.” The verbs δέω and λύω (bind and loose) are critical to this pericope.
3. Don’t you just want to smack this guy?
4. Was it the fact that Jesus “laid hands” on the woman that constitutes the violation of the Sabbath? Surely it is not the ruler of the synagogue’s place to tell God whether to heal or not to heal on the Sabbath. Even more curiously, while he is indignant that Jesus healed on the Sabbath, he BLAMES THE WOMAN for coming to be healed (passive) on the Sabbath. And, if a healing occurs, wouldn’t there be some kind of reverence, some kind of wonder, or at least some kind of joy that would prevent a normal person from getting indignant? Everything about this protest is maddening.

 15 ἀπεκρίθη δὲ αὐτῷ  κύριος καὶ εἶπεν, Ὑποκριταί, ἕκαστος ὑμῶν τῷ 
σαββάτῳ οὐ λύει τὸν βοῦν αὐτοῦ  τὸν ὄνον ἀπὸ τῆς φάτνης καὶ 
ἀπαγαγὼν ποτίζει;
Yet answering the Lord said to him, “Hypocrite!  Does not each of you on the Sabbath loose your ox or ass from the manger and having led gives drink? 
ἀπεκρίθη: API, 3s, ἀποκρίνομαι, 1) to give an answer to a question proposed, to answer  
λύει: PAI, 3s, λύω, 1) to loose any person (or thing) tied or fastened 
ἀπαγαγὼν: AAPart, nms, ἀπάγω, 1) to lead away
ποτίζει: PAI 3s, ποτίζω, 1) to give to drink, to furnish drink 
1. The word ‘manger’ here is indeed the same manger as in Luke’s birth story.
2. My translation is rather wooden, particularly from trying to show the aorist participle and present tense verb at the end of Jesus’ question.
3. It is interesting that Jesus is speaking of ‘loosing’ the animals from the feeding trough, using the same term that he used to release the woman from her infirmity. Jesus did not say, “Woman, you have been healed.” He said, “Woman, you have been loosed.”

 16 ταύτην δὲ θυγατέρα Ἀβραὰμ οὖσαν, ἣν ἔδησεν  Σατανᾶς ἰδοὺ δέκα καὶ 
ὀκτὼ ἔτη, οὐκ ἔδει λυθῆναι ἀπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ τούτου τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου; 
Yet this being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan bound behold eighteen years, was she not bound to be loosed from this bondage on the day of the Sabbath? 
οὖσαν: PAPart, afs, εἰμί, 1) to be
ἔδησεν: AAI, 3s, δέω, 1) to bind tie, fasten  1a) to bind, fasten with chains, to throw into chains 
ἔδει: IAI, 3s, δέω, 1) to bind tie, fasten  1a) to bind, fasten with chains, to throw into chains    
λυθῆναι : APInf λύω 1) to loose any person (or thing) tied or fastened
1. I like how the story is circling back to another “behold,” just as it did in v.11, drawing the attention to a woman bound for eighteen years.
2. The word δέω appears in some form three times in this verse, if we count the nominative form of δεσμοῦ, “bond.” She was bound by Satan; she is bound to be loosed; from bondage.
3. As I indicated above and note often, it is indeed possible to translate δέω simply as “must” or “ought” and relegate it to something like a helping verb for other verbs in the sentence. It is possible. But, in doing so, I think we are letting our disbelieving tendencies drive our translations. I personally do not think the Scriptures make any sense if one does not have a vivid sense of a living, active God in the world. To treat the word δέω as a solid verb in its own right, indicative of divine agency, would be more sympathetic to what I believe the writers of Scripture intend.  I’m only going on and on about this because it is easy to miss the word play in this verse if one reads the KJV, NIV, ESV, or NRSV, which relegate δέω to either “ought” or “should.”
4. “Bound to be loosed”: Jesus uses δέω and λύω cooperatively and oppositionally. She is bound by Satan. She is bound (by God?) to be loosed from having been bound by Satan.
If we interpreted the agency of ἔδει to be “bound by God,” then the woman who was bound by Satan to her infirmity is bound by God to be loosed. That, to me, is the presence of the reign of God, made known in Christ.
5. To reflect theologically for a moment, the early church is doing an end run around the whole philosophical opposition between ‘freedom’ and ‘necessity,’ and replacing it with a paradox. She is bound to be loosed. It is necessary for her to be freed. This might be the paradoxical meaning of other phrases like ‘take my yoke upon you ... my yoke is easy,” and Paul’s emphasis on being “bond slaves” to Christ, who are thereby free. There is almost a given-ness to being bound, with the only question of whether one is bound for freedom or bound for bondage.

17καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντος αὐτοῦ κατῃσχύνοντο πάντες οἱ ἀντικείμενοι αὐτῷ, 
καὶ πᾶς  ὄχλος ἔχαιρεν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς ἐνδόξοις τοῖς γινομένοις ὑπ' αὐτοῦ.
And, in his saying these things, all of his opponents were disgraced, and all of the crowd rejoiced over all of the glorious things that were coming into being by him.
λέγοντος: PAPart gsm, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
κατῃσχύνοντο: IPI, 3pl, καταισχύνω, 1) to dishonour, disgrace  2) to put to shame, make ashamed  
ἔχαιρεν: IAI, 3s, χαίρω, 1) to rejoice, be glad  2) to rejoice exceedingly  3) to be well, thrive  4) in salutations, hail!  5) at the beginning of letters: to give one greeting, salute
γινομένοις: PMPart, mnpl, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being
1. If the early church had known the term “Booyah!” they could have shortened this verse to one word.

2. Three forms of the word πᾶς (all) appear in this one sentence.

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