Sunday, November 23, 2014

Images of Hope, Suffering, and Vigilance

Below is a rough translation and some VERY preliminary comments regarding Mark 13:24-37. I find this text to be challenging in terms of how the beginning, middle, and end hold together. Your comments are always welcomed.

24 Ἀλλὰ ἐν ἐκείναις ταῖς ἡμέραις μετὰ τὴν θλῖψιν ἐκείνην ὁ ἥλιος σκοτισθήσεται, καὶ ἡ σελήνη οὐ δώσει τὸ φέγγος αὐτῆς,
But in those days after that affliction the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give her light,
σκοτισθήσεται:  FPI 3s, σκοτίζω, 1) to make dark, deprive of light. In NT only passive to be darkened.
δώσει: FAI 3s, δίδωμι, 1) to give 
1. The phrase “that affliction” is interesting. The terms is used in the parable of the sower of Mk 4:17 to describe what causes the seeds that fell on the stone and had sprung up quickly to wither because they had no root. That is the only use in the synoptics outside of the apocalyptics texts, but John uses it 2 times, Acts uses it several times, Paul/pseudo-Paul use it often, as does John of the Revelation. This is far too common a word, and tragically too common an experience, for end-time theorists to draw a connective line between all the uses of the word and plot them on a timeline as a single unfolding event. Affliction is more like an ongoing part of human experience.
2. It seems odd that the darkness of the sun is in the passive voice, but the darkness of the moon is in the active voice. It would be interesting to see how 1st century science (as known by someone like Mark) and the lingering mythologies of Helios and Selena play into these references.

25 καὶ οἱ ἀστέρες ἔσονται ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ πίπτοντες, καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις αἱ ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς σαλευθήσονται.
And the stars shall be falling out of the heaven, and the powers which are in the heaven will be shaken.  
ἔσονται: FMI 3p, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
πίπτοντες: PAPart npm, πίπτω, 1) to descend from a higher place to a lower  1a) to fall (either from or upon)  1a1) to be thrust down 
σαλευθήσονται: FPI 3p, σαλεύω, 1) a motion produced by winds, storms, waves, etc  1a) to agitate or shake
1. “The powers that are in the heaven”:

26 καὶ τότε ὄψονται τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐρχόμενον ἐν νεφέλαις μετὰ δυνάμεως πολλῆς καὶ δόξης.
And then they will see the son of the man entering in clouds with great power and glory.
ὄψονται: FMI 3p, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes 
ἐρχόμενον: PMPart asm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come 
1. The Son of man entering in clouds: Mark is employing a familiar image from the 2nd century BCE portion of Daniel, which was part of a new eschatology among Jews regarding how God deals with evil. See Daniel 7:13-14, where “one like a son of man” comes with the clouds of heaven and is given dominion, glory and kingship. Notice that Mark’s Son of Man appears “coming in clouds” but there is nothing about whether he actually descends to the ground. What he does is sends messengers to gather the elect.
2. They will see: The pronoun/subject is implied in the 3rd person plural form of the verb. Curious that it is not “you will see.”

27 καὶ τότε ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους καὶ ἐπισυνάξει τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς [αὐτοῦ not in all mss.] ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων ἀπ' ἄκρου γῆς ἕως ἄκρου οὐρανοῦ.
And then he will send the angels and gather the [his] elect out of the four corners from end of earth to end of heaven.
ἀποστελεῖ: FAI 3s, ἀποστέλλω, 1) to order (one) to go to a place appointed 
ἐπισυνάξει: FAI 3s, ἐπισυνάγω, 1) to gather together besides, to bring together to others  already assembled 
1. The angels are “gathering the elect,” using the same verb as the hen, who “gathers” her brood for protection.
3. The elect: Mark only uses this phrase in this chapter, three times – v.20, v.22, and here. In the NT, the word is used to signify Jesus as the chosen one of God, as well as people like Rufus (Rom 16:13) or “the elect lady” of II John 1:1 and 1:13. My sense is that it refers to those who are chosen, but not necessarily in the “elected for salvation since the beginning of creation” sense that one finds in the writings of Reformed communities much later.
4. I suspect phrases like “four corners” and “end of earth to end of heaven” (no definite articles in this phrase) are 1st century sayings, like “from stem to stern,” signifying “all over.” The elect have been scattered during the affliction. “Four corners” may reflect a linguistic habit that arose during a “flat earth” stage of cosmology, but I am not convinced that all 1st century persons had the 3-stage, flat earth cosmology that Rudolph Bultmann attributes to them. After all, we in the 21st century still speak of the “sun rising” when we know the perception is a result of the earth’s movement, not the sun’s.

28 Ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς συκῆς μάθετε τὴν παραβολήν: ὅταν ἤδη ὁ κλάδος αὐτῆς ἁπαλὸς γένηται καὶ ἐκφύῃ τὰ φύλλα, γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγὺς τὸ θέρος ἐστίν.
Yet from the fig tree learn the parable: When her branch becomes tender and produces the leaves, know that the summer is near.
μάθετε: AAImpv 2p, μανθάνω, 1) to learn, be appraised  1a) to increase one's knowledge, to be increased in knowledge  1b) to hear, be informed
γένηται: AMS 3s, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being  2) to become, i.e. to come to pass, happen
ἐκφύῃ: PASubj 3s, ἐκφύω, 1) to generate or produce from 
γινώσκετε: PAI 2p, γινώσκω, 1) to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel
ἐστίν: PAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 

29 οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς, ὅταν ἴδητε ταῦτα γινόμενα, γινώσκετε ὅτι ἐγγύς ἐστιν ἐπὶ θύραις.
Likewise also you, when you may see these things becoming, know that he/it is near at the door.
ἴδητε: AASubj 2p, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes  2) to see with the mind, to perceive, know 
γινόμενα: PMPart apm, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being 
γινώσκετε: PAImpv 2p, γινώσκω, 1) to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel 
ἐστίν: PAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
1. I know that the verb “becoming” is awkward here, but I want to show that it is the same verb as the branch of the fig tree becoming tender. Frankly, I think the KJV phrase “it came to pass” picks up well the experience where the agency of actions is not evident. (Some refer to moments like these as the ‘divine passive,’ where God is the implied agent. Maybe. Perhaps it is a 1st century way of expressing the current popular response, “Wow, that just happened.”)
2. The door, the gate, the entrance: There seems to be a subtle shift of focus with this term. Whereas the Danielic reference to the son of man appearing in clouds was something of a rescue or at least a vision of sustenance in a time of suffering, the tone after this reference to he/it someone/something being at the door seems to be more threatening to the listener who is to stay awake and to be ready. Is that which is at the door a rescue or a threat?

30 ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι οὐ μὴ παρέλθῃ ἡ γενεὰ αὕτη μέχρις οὗ ταῦτα πάντα γένηται.
Amen I say to you that this generation may not pass until all these things which may become.
λέγω: PAI 1s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
παρέλθῃ: AASubj 3s, παρέρχομαι, 1) to go past, pass by  1a) of persons moving forward  1a1) to pass by 
γένηται: AMSubj 3s, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being
1. For “become”: See v.30, n.1.
2. The verbs ‘pass’ and ‘become’ are subjunctive, placing this whole phrase in the conditional mode. I see two possibilities for translating and interpreting this conditional mode. It could be something like, ‘not this until that,’ as reflected in the NIV’s “this generation will certainly not pass away until all these things have happened.” In that case, the ‘until’ is the condition but everything else is strongly indicative. On the other hand, the condition could be ‘maybe this and, if so, then that,’ as reflected in Young’s Literal Translation, “this generation may not pass away till all these things may come to pass.” If Mark is writing this text in the midst of unfolding events surrounding the destruction of Jerusalem, then perhaps the conditional voice is the best that he can offer to represent Jesus’ teachings in a fluid situation.

31 ὁ οὐρανὸς καὶ ἡ γῆ παρελεύσονται, οἱ δὲ λόγοι μου οὐ μὴ παρελεύσονται.
The heaven and the earth will pass, but my words will not pass.
παρελεύσονται: FMI 3p, παρέρχομαι, 1) to go past, pass by 1a) of persons moving forward
παρελεύσονται: FMI 3p, παρέρχομαι, 1) to go past, pass by  1a) of persons moving forward

32 Περὶ δὲ τῆς ἡμέρας ἐκείνης ἢ τῆς ὥρας οὐδεὶς οἶδεν, οὐδὲ οἱ ἄγγελοι ἐν οὐρανῷ οὐδὲ ὁ υἱός, εἰ μὴ ὁ πατήρ.
But concerning that day or the hour no one has known, neither the angels in heaven nor the son, except the father.
οἶδεν: PerfAI 3s, εἴδω, ἴδω, an obsolete form of the present tense, the place of which is supplied by ὁράω. The tenses coming from εἴδω and retained by usage form two families, of which one signifies to see, the other to know.
1. The verb “has known” is in the perfect tense. It is almost always referred to as present tense, but it’s in the perfect tense – a past action with present effect.

33 βλέπετε ἀγρυπνεῖτε: οὐκ οἴδατε γὰρ πότε ὁ καιρός ἐστιν.
Look be awake; for you do not know when the time is.
βλέπετε: PAImpv 2p, βλέπω, 1) to see, discern, of the bodily eye 
ἀγρυπνεῖτε: PAImpv 2p, ἀγρυπνέω, 1) to be sleepless, keep awake, watch  2) to be circumspect, attentive, ready
οἴδατε: PerfAI 2p, εἴδω, ἴδω, an obsolete form of the present tense, the place of which is supplied by ὁράω. The tenses coming from εἴδω and retained by usage form two families, of which one signifies to see, the other to know.
ἐστίν: PAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
1. Both βλέπω and εἴδω are verbs grounded in the act of ‘seeing.’ And, as with the English word, its meaning ranges from actively looking to perceiving/knowing.
2. Readers of Paul Tillich (me!) will want to infuse καιρός with more meaning than may be warranted here. It could just refer to the day and hour of v.32.

34 ὡς ἄνθρωπος ἀπόδημος ἀφεὶς τὴν οἰκίαν αὐτοῦ καὶ δοὺς τοῖς δούλοις αὐτοῦ τὴν ἐξουσίαν, ἑκάστῳ τὸ ἔργον αὐτοῦ, καὶ τῷ θυρωρῷ ἐνετείλατο ἵνα γρηγορῇ.
As a man abroad having left his house and having given to his slaves the authority, to each his work, also commanded the doorkeeper in order that he would watch.  
ἀφεὶς:  AAPart nsm, ἀφίημι, 1) to send away  … 3e) to go away leaving something behind  
δοὺς: AAPart nsm, δίδωμι, 1) to give 
ἐνετείλατο: AMI 3s, ἐντέλλομαι, 1) to order, command to be done, enjoin
γρηγορῇ: PASubj 3s, γρηγορέω 1) to keep awake, to watch
1. Translated woodenly, as I do at this stage of my work, this ends up being an incomplete sentence. One can remedy that by making ὡς into “it is like,” instead of simply “as.”
2. If we are interpreting this traveler as the Son of Man who is to return at an unknown hour, there are two types of good servants here: Those who have authority and a commission to work their proper tasks; and those who are porters and commissioned to stay awake and watch the door. To paraphrase Paul, “If all are porters, where will the house cleaning be? If all are watching the door, who is keeping the fire burning?”

35 γρηγορεῖτε οὖν, οὐκ οἴδατε γὰρ πότε ὁ κύριος τῆς οἰκίας ἔρχεται, ἢ ὀψὲ ἢ μεσονύκτιον ἢ ἀλεκτοροφωνίας ἢ πρωΐ,
Therefore watch, for you have not known when the lord of the house is entering, whether evening, or midnight, or cock-crowing or morning.  
γρηγορεῖτε: PAImpv 2p, γρηγορέω 1) to keep awake, to watch
οἴδατε: PerfAI 2p, εἴδω, ἴδω, an obsolete form of the present tense, the place of which is supplied by ὁράω. The tenses coming from εἴδω and retained by usage form two families, of which one signifies to see, the other to know.
ἔρχεται: PMI 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come 
1. Here and in v.26 I translate ἔρχομαι as ‘entering’ because it is in the middle voice.
2. Now the question becomes who the target audience of Jesus’ words is. Who is the implied “you” in the 2nd person voicing of the imperative “watch,” and by the pronoun ὑμᾶς in the next verse and the emphatic πᾶσιν in v.37? Who are the porters to whom Jesus is speaking? And if the porters are ‘all,’ what becomes of the other servants who are doing their work?

36 μὴ ἐλθὼν ἐξαίφνης [ἐξέφνης in some mss.] εὕρῃ ὑμᾶς καθεύδοντας.
Having come suddenly may he not you sleeping.
ἐλθὼν: AAPart nsm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come 
εὕρῃ: AASubj 3s, εὑρίσκω, 1) to come upon, hit upon, to meet with
καθεύδοντας: PAPart apm, καθεύδω, 1) to fall asleep, drop off to sleep 

37ὃ δὲ ὑμῖν λέγω, πᾶσιν λέγω, γρηγορεῖτε.
But this I say to you, I say to all, keep awake.
λέγω: PAI 1s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
λέγω: PAI 1s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
γρηγορεῖτε: PAImpv 2p, γρηγορέω 1) to keep awake, to watch
1. By now, the division of labor in v.34 has fallen by the wayside and “all” are called to be porters, keeping awake and watching the door. I find this a little confusing, not as a singular idea but as an idea within the flow of the whole text.
 2. This pericope began with the “affliction,” after which the sun would be darkened and the moon lightless. Needless to say, that would be quite the wake-up call, which contrasts with the idea that the porter would be sleeping out of boredom and caught unawares of when the departed one would return. I fail to see how these verses hold together neatly, although various images are certainly powerful in their own right.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

The Structure of Entrapment

Below is a rough translation of and some initial comments for Matthew 22:15-22, the Revised Common Lectionary gospel reading for Sunday, October 19.  Your comments are always welcomed.

15 Τότε πορευθέντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον ὅπως αὐτὸν παγιδεύσωσιν ἐν λόγῳ. 
Then having gone the Pharisees took counsel how they might entrap him in a word.
πορευθέντες: APPart npm, πορεύομαι, 1) to lead over, carry over, transfer  1a) to pursue the journey on which one has entered, to continue on  one's journey
ἔλαβον: AAI 3p, λαμβάνω, 1) to take  1a) to take with the hand, lay hold of, any person or thing  in order to use it
παγιδεύσωσιν: AASubj 3p, παγιδεύω, 1) to ensnare, entrap  1a) of birds 
1. The context of this pericope is that Jesus has entered Jerusalem with great fanfare (21:1-11) and having cleansed the temple (21:12-17) he is back now teaching in the temple. The chief priests and elders question his authority, which evokes two parables, at the end of which Matthew says “When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard his parables, they realized that he was speaking about them. They wanted to arrest him, but they feared the crowds, because they regarded him as a prophet” (21:25-26). Again Jesus gives a parable that is aimed at the leadership, the parable of the wedding banquet and the addendum of the wrongly-dressed guest (22:1-14). Today’s pericope is the first of three attempts by various groups allied in leadership to entrap Jesus. Following that, Jesus goes on the offensive in challenging them (22:41-46).
2. The word ‘entrap’ (παγιδεύω) is used here for the only time in the NT. As the definition suggests, it is a hunting term. I am not clear on whether their hope is to trick Jesus into saying something actionable, in order to arrest him, or to make him say something that will turn the tide of his popularity against him.

16 καὶ ἀποστέλλουσιν αὐτῷ τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτῶν μετὰ τῶν Ἡρῳδιανῶν
λέγοντες, Διδάσκαλε, οἴδαμεν ὅτι ἀληθὴς εἶ καὶ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν 
ἀληθείᾳ διδάσκεις, καὶ οὐ μέλει σοι περὶ οὐδενός, οὐ γὰρ βλέπεις εἰς 
πρόσωπον ἀνθρώπων. 
And they send to him their disciples with the Herodians saying, “Teacher, we have known that you are true and you teach the way of God in truth, and you do not care about no one, for you do not look into a face of humans.
ἀποστέλλουσιν: PAI 3p, ἀποστέλλω, 1) to order (one) to go to a place appointed  
λέγοντες: PAPart apm, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
οἴδαμεν: PerfAI 1p, εἴδω, ἴδω, to see, the other to know.
εἶ: PAI 2s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
διδάσκεις: PAI 2s, διδάσκω, 1) to teach
μέλει: PAI 3s, μέλω; it is a care: τινί, to one;
βλέπεις: PAI 2s, βλέπω, 1) to see, discern, of the bodily eye
1. The fact that the Pharisees are in a position to send, not only some of their disciples but some of the “Herodians” as well, indicates that they are in consort with the Herodians. Mark also mentions the Herodians – twice (3:6 and 12:13), both times as co-conspirators with the Pharisees. The term does not arise anywhere else in the NT. Beyond the self-evident name, it does not appear that there is a lot of information about this group.
2. The effusive praise that they offer has already been described by Matthew as the bait in a snare.

17 εἰπὲ οὖν ἡμῖν τί σοι δοκεῖ: ἔξεστιν δοῦναι κῆνσον Καίσαρι  οὔ; 
Therefore, say to us what you opine: Is it lawful to give the imperial tax to Caesar or not?”
εἰπὲ: AAImpv 2s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
δοκεῖ: PAI 3s, δοκέω, 1) to be of opinion, think, suppose  2) to seem, to be accounted, reputed  3) it seems to me 
ἔξεστιν: PAI 3s, ἔξεστι, 1) it is lawful 
δοῦναι: AAInf, δίδωμι, 1) to give  2) to give something to someone 
1. The word “lawful” (ἔξεστι) appears 9x in Matthew, as well as in the other gospels, Acts, and Paul’s letters to the Corinthians. It does not refer strictly to religious laws, like the law of Moses. In Acts 22, for example, Paul asks a Centurion whether it is lawful for him to flog an un-condemned Roman citizen – obviously a reference to Roman laws and not the law of Moses.
2. The ambiguity of the word “lawful” may be part of the trap. Hebrew law may suggest one thing; Imperial law may suggest another. How Jesus hears and responds to the word “lawful” itself may be an indicator of this religious blasphemy or his political sedition – the twin jaws of this trap.
3. I have translated as “imperial tax” following the ESV because the root of the word κῆνσον is the word for “census,” which would be taken of conquered areas and on which the tax/tribute would be levied.
4. While the practical aspect of the imperial tax would be that conscripting armies is a costly affair (and many would-be emperors were done in by debt as much as military strategy), the symbolic effect is that one acknowledges the emperor’s lordship. This question, then, is not unrelated to questions regarding King David and the expectation of a messiah from David’s lineage – the topic of Jesus’ question to the religious leaders at the end of this chapter.

18 γνοὺς δὲ  Ἰησοῦς τὴν πονηρίαν αὐτῶν εἶπεν, Τί με πειράζετε, ὑποκριταί;
Yet Jesus, having known their evil, said, “Why are you testing me, hypocrites!
γνοὺς: AAPart nsm, γινώσκω, 1) to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel
εἶπεν: AAI 3p, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
πειράζετε: PAI 2p, πειράζω, 1) to try whether a thing can be done  1a) to attempt, endeavour  2) to try, make trial of, test:
1. I think the key word here is “hypocrites!” Jesus does not just summons a clever answer, his answer exposes the hypocrisy behind the trap.
2. The verb “test” (πειράζω) is used of the religious leadership here and elsewhere, and of the devil in c.4.

19 ἐπιδείξατέ μοι τὸ νόμισμα τοῦ κήνσου. οἱ δὲ προσήνεγκαν αὐτῷ δηνάριον. 
Show me the coin of the imperial tax.” And they brought to him a denarius.
ἐπιδείξατέ : AAImpv 2p, ἐπιδείκνυμι, 1) to exhibit, show  1a) to bring forth to view, to show  1a1) furnish to be looked at, produce what may looked at
προσήνεγκαν: προσφέρω, 1) to bring to, lead to 
1. As many have pointed out, this conversation seems to be taking place in the temple (21:23), where this coin would be unwelcomed because it bears the image of a living thing. Temple coinage – which one would obtain via a money-changer – was imprinted with numbers, letters, or even depictions of harvested wheat, but not a living thing, in deference to the commandment in Exodus 20:4.

20 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Τίνος ἡ εἰκὼν αὕτη καὶ  ἐπιγραφή; 
And he says to them, “Who [is] this icon and the inscription?”
λέγει: PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
1. The word εἰκὼν is not the word in the LXX of Exodus 20:4 (εἴδωλον), but is the word in the creation story of Genesis 1:27, where God creates humanity in God’s image (εἰκόνα).

21 λέγουσιν αὐτῷ, Καίσαρος. τότε λέγει αὐτοῖς, Ἀπόδοτε οὖν τὰ Καίσαρος 
Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τῷ θεῷ. 
They say to him, “Caesar.” Then he says to them, “Therefore, give the things of Caesar to Caesar and the things of God to God.”
λέγουσιν: PAI 3p, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak
λέγει: PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
Ἀπόδοτε: AAImpv 2p, ἀποδίδωμι, 1) to deliver, to give away for one's own profit what is one's  own, to sell  2) to pay off, discharge what is due 
1. As far as I can tell, this is the only time Jesus mentions Caesar by name. Part of interpreting the Scriptures is to raise the question of whether Jesus is actually referencing Caesar or his underlings throughout his parables and teachings.

22 καὶ ἀκούσαντες ἐθαύμασαν, καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἀπῆλθαν.
And having heard, they marveled, and having left him they went away.
ἀκούσαντες: AAPart npm, ἀκούω, 1) to be endowed with the faculty of hearing,
ἐθαύμασαν: AAI 3p, θαυμάζω, 1) to wonder, wonder at, marvel 
ἀφέντες: AAPart npm, ἀφίημι, 1) to send away  … 3b) to depart from anyone
ἀπῆλθαν: AAI 3p, ἀπέρχομαι, 1) to go away, depart 
1. The Herodians and disciples of the Pharisees have struck out. On deck are the Sadducees and in the hole are some more Pharisees. Jesus will pitch a one-two-three inning. This comment has been brought to you by the ongoing playoffs of Major League Baseball.

Many scribes near and far have pondered the implications of this conclusion to Jesus’ query. I’m not sure if there is content here, as much as form. The structure of the whole encounter has been between two options – acquiescence to the emperor or resistance to the emperor in the name of fidelity to God. The structure is introduced by the persons involved – Herodians and Pharisees, who are strange bedfellows, since their commitments should have put them on opposite sides of this matter. But, again, it is not a genuine question; it is a trap. The structure lies in the ironic praise that the Herodians and Pharisees offer to Jesus, as one who teaches the way of God in truth and does not give attention to the face of humans. The structure is also in the question that the Herodians and Pharisees ask, “Yes or no to the imperial tax?” Likewise, I suggest that the structure is implied in the word “lawful,” which can refer to the imperial “law of the land” or the religious “law of God.” Jesus’ answer follows that structure and makes it complete. Only now the questioners are put into the position of having to interpret the content. To give the things of Caesar to Caesar means … what? From the empire’s point of view, it is whatever Caesar requires or demands from a vassal state. To give the things of God to God means … what? From a religious point of view, the earth is the lord’s and everything in it. Jesus’ answer – it seems to me – does not solve or provide content for the questions we might ask of this text regarding taxation and the interplay between church and state. It merely provides the structure, a framework of a way of broaching the questions we ask.

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