Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Begging Believers and Scorning Skeptics


Below is my rough translation and some notes for the two stories in Mark 5:21-43. 
Your responses are welcomed. 
These two stories show Mark's habit of ‘bracketing’ one story within another. It seems, when this happens, that the meaning of each of the stories enlightens the meaning of the other. I will refer to the story of the woman with the flow of blood at the ‘inner’ story and the healing of Jairus’ daughter as the ‘outer’ story. I have occasionally highlighted a word to see repetitions and will note those at the end.

Mark 5: 21-43
21Καὶ διαπεράσαντος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ [ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ] πάλιν εἰς τὸ πέραν συνήχθη 
ὄχλος πολὺς ἐπ' αὐτόν, καὶ ἦν παρὰ τὴν θάλασσαν. 
And with Jesus having crossed [in the boat] again to the other side, a great crowd was squeezed together with him, and was alongside the sea. 
διαπεράσαντος : AAPart gsm, διαπεράω, 1) to pass over, cross over, i.e. a river, a lake
συνήχθη : API 3s, συνέχω, 1) to hold together  1a) any whole, lest it fall to pieces or something fall away from it  2) to hold together with constraint, to compress  2a) to press together with the hand  2a) to hold one's ears, to shut the heavens that it may not rain  2b) to press on every side  2b1) of a besieged city  2b2) of a strait, that forces a ship into a narrow channel  2b3) of a cattle squeeze, that pushing in on each side, forcing  the beast into a position where it cannot move so the  farmer can administer medication
ἦν : IAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
I say ‘with Jesus having crossed’ because ‘Jesus’ is in the genitive case; ‘a great crowd’ is the main subject in the nominative case.
The word “squeezed” (συνήχθη) could be translated “gathered,” but because the tightness of the crowd will factor into the inner story, I am trying to bring out the issue from the start. Note the definition possibilities above. They seem to get more and more extreme.

22καὶ ἔρχεται εἷς τῶν ἀρχισυναγώγων, ὀνόματι Ἰάϊρος, καὶ ἰδὼν αὐτὸν πίπτει πρὸς τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ 
And one of the leaders of the synagogue arrives, named Jairus, and having seen him falls at his feet,
ἔρχεται : PMI 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
ἰδὼν : AAPart nsm, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes  2) to see with the mind, to perceive, know
πίπτει : PAI 3s, πίπτω, 1) to descend from a higher place to a lower  1a) to fall (either from or upon)  1a1) to be thrust down  1b) metaph. to fall under judgment, came under condemnation  2) to descend from an erect to a prostrate position

23καὶ παρακαλεῖ αὐτὸν πολλὰ λέγων ὅτι Τὸ θυγάτριόν μου ἐσχάτως ἔχει, 
ἵνα ἐλθὼν ἐπιθῇς τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῇ ἵνα σωθῇ καὶ ζήσῃ. 
And begs him repeatedly saying, “My little daughter is nearing her end, so come lay your hands on her in order to be made whole and to live.” 
παρακαλεῖ : PAI 3s, παρακαλέω, 1) to call to one's side, call for, summon  2) to address, speak to, (call to, call upon), which may be done in  the way of exhortation, entreaty, comfort, instruction, etc.  2a) to admonish, exhort  2b) to beg, entreat, beseech 
λέγων : PAPart nsm, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain 
ἔχει: PAI 3s, ἔχω, 1) to have, i.e. to hold  1a) …  3) to hold one's self or find one's self so and so, to be in such or  such a condition
ἐλθὼν : AAPart nsm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
ἐπιθῇς : AASubj 2s, ἐπιτίθημι, 1) in the active voice to put or lay upon 
σωθῇ : APSubj 3s, σῴζω, 1) to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction  1a) one (from injury or peril)  1a1) to save a suffering one (from perishing), i.e. one  suffering from disease, to make well, heal, restore to health
ζήσῃ: AASubj 3s, ζάω, 1) to live, breathe, be among the living (not lifeless, not dead) 
The word “beg” (παρακαλεῖ) can mean many things, but the posture of falling at one’s feet suggests that this man is desperate.
The word “nearing” (ἔχω) is typically translated as ‘to have’ or ‘to hold,’ although it can indicate one’s condition as much as that which one is holding.
The word “made whole” (σῴζω) is rich with meaning. It is the word that is often translated as “save,” but that has become such a ‘religious’ term connoting the afterlife that the richness of its meaning is often obscured. It would be accurate and simpler to say “healed” here, but I want to keep the larger sense of this word apparent.

24καὶ ἀπῆλθεν μετ’ αὐτοῦ. Καὶ ἠκολούθει αὐτῷ ὄχλος πολύς, καὶ 
συνέθλιβον αὐτόν. 
And he went with him.  And a great crowd followed him, and pressed in on him.  
ἀπῆλθεν : AAI 3s, ἀπέρχομαι, 1) to go away, depart 
ἠκολούθει : IAI 3s, ἀκολουθέω, 1) to follow one who precedes, join him as his attendant,  accompany him 
συνέθλιβον : IAI 3s, συνθλίβω, 1) to press together, press on all sides
Again, like v.21, Mark emphasizes the pressing crowd in the outer story, which is a factor in the inner story. By now we know it was really, really crowded.

25καὶ γυνὴ οὖσα ἐν ῥύσει αἵματος δώδεκα ἔτη 
And a woman, being in a flow of blood for 12 years
οὖσα : PAPart nsf, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
This verse should not be set apart as a separate verse from vv.26 and 27, because vv. 25 and 26 have a string of participles, with the main verb (touched) not appearing until v.27. See the comment below v.27 for why I think this matters.
Most translations say that she ‘had’ a flow of blood, which does capture the meaning, but literally it reads that she is ‘being in’ a flow of blood for 12 years.  

26 καὶ πολλὰ παθοῦσα ὑπὸ πολλῶν ἰατρῶν καὶ δαπανήσασα τὰ παρ' αὐτῆς 
πάντα καὶ μηδὲν ὠφεληθεῖσα ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον εἰς τὸ χεῖρον ἐλθοῦσα, 
and having suffered much by many physicians and having spent all that she had and not having benefitted but having gone from bad to the worse,  
παθοῦσα : AAPart nsf, πάσχω, 1) to be affected or have been affected, to feel, have a  sensible experience, to undergo  1a) in a good sense, to be well off, in good case  1b) in a bad sense, to suffer sadly, be in a bad plight  1b1) of a sick person
δαπανήσασα : AAPart nsf, δαπανάω, 1) to incur expense, expend, spend  2) in a bad sense: to waste, squander, consume
ὠφεληθεῖσα : APPart nsf, ὠφελέω, 1) to assist, to be useful or advantageous, to profit 
ἐλθοῦσα: AAPart nsf, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
Participles abound. See below v.27.
Mark only uses the word for suffer (πάσχω) 3x. The last two are when Jesus tells his disciples that he will suffer and die (8:31 and 9:12).

27 ἀκούσασα περὶ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ, ἐλθοῦσα ἐντῷ ὄχλῳ ὄπισθεν ἥψατο τοῦ 
ἱματίου αὐτοῦ: 
having heard about Jesus, having gone into the crowd she grabbed his garment from behind;
ἀκούσασα : AAPart nsf, ἀκούω, 1) to be endowed with the faculty of hearing, not deaf
ἐλθοῦσα : AAPart nsf, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
ἥψατο: AMI 3s, ἅπτω, 1) to fasten to, adhere to  1a) to fasten fire to a thing, kindle, set of fire 
Here is why I think vv.25-27 ought to be one, long sentence. Yes, this unfortunate woman did have a flow of blood for 12 years. But, to put that description into a self-standing sentence (as NRSV and NIV do with v.25) is to define her in a singular way, which is not how Mark tells the story. She had been living with a flow of blood for 12 years, but she also suffered at the hands of physicians, she also spent all of her money to address it, she also did not benefit but went from bad to worse. AND, she also heard about Jesus and she also went into this pressing throng of people – to grab his garment. She is as defined by her determination as by her suffering. That is the value of respecting Mark’s string of participles and being patient for the main verb. After all that she suffered and did, she grabbed his garment.

28 ἔλεγεν γὰρ ὅτι Ἐὰν ἅψωμαι κἂν τῶν ἱματίων αὐτοῦ σωθήσομαι. 
For she was saying, “If only I may grab even his garment I will be made whole.”  
ἔλεγεν : IAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἅψωμαι : AMSubj 1s, ἅπτω, 1) to fasten to, adhere to  1a) to fasten fire to a thing, kindle, set of fire
σωθήσομαι: FPI 1s, σῴζω, 1) to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction
We don’t know why this woman has come to this conclusion, but her intent and determination seem to be what Jesus calls her saving faith in v.34.

29 καὶ εὐθὺς ἐξηράνθη  πηγὴ τοῦ αἵματος αὐτῆς, καὶ ἔγνω τῷ σώματι ὅτι 
ἴαται ἀπὸτῆς μάστιγος. 
And immediately the spring of her blood was dried up, and she knew in the body that she was healed (see v. 26) of the scourge. 
ἐξηράνθη: API 3s, ξηραίνω, 1) to make dry, dry up, wither  2) to become dry, to be dry …  2c) of fluids
ἔγνω: AAI 3s, γινώσκω, 1) to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel  1a) to become known 
ἴαται: PerfPI 3s, ἰάομαι, 1) to cure, heal  2) to make whole  2a) to free from errors and sins, to bring about (one's) salvation
The verb for ‘healed’ (ἴαται) seems to have the same root at the word for ‘physicians’ (ἰατρῶν) in v.26.

30καὶ εὐθὺς  Ἰησοῦς ἐπιγνοὺς ἐν ἑαυτῷ τὴν ἐξ αὐτοῦ δύναμιν ἐξελθοῦσαν ἐπιστραφεὶς ἐν τῷ ὄχλῳ ἔλεγεν, Τίς μου ἥψατο τῶν ἱματίων; 
And immediately Jesus, recognizing in himself the power had exited out of him, turning around in the crowd was saying, “Who grabbed my garment?” 
ἐπιγνοὺς: AAPart nsm, ἐπιγινώσκω, 1) to become thoroughly acquainted with, to know thoroughly  1a) to know accurately, know well  2) to know  2a) to recognise
ἐξελθοῦσαν: AAPart asf, ἐξέρχομαι, 1) to go or come forth of  1a) with mention of the place out of which one goes, or the  point from which he departs
ἐπιστραφεὶς : APPart nsm, ἐπιστρέφω, 1) transitively  1a) to turn to  1a1) to the worship of the true God  1b) to cause to return, to bring back
ἔλεγεν: IAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἥψατο: AMI 3s, ἅπτω, 1) to fasten to, adhere to  1a) to fasten fire to a thing, kindle, set of fire 
Mark truly reifies the healing power of Jesus in this story. Whatever it is, it is something that can go out of Jesus without his willing it, but he can sense it actually leaving his body. There is also a kind of physicality that is odd, because the woman’s intent and action was to touch his garment, not Jesus himself. (See Acts

31καὶ ἔλεγον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ, Βλέπεις τὸν ὄχλον συνθλίβοντά σε, 
καὶ λέγεις, Τίς μου ἥψατο; 
And his disciples were saying to him, “You see the crowd pressing you, and you say, ‘Who grabbed me?’”
ἔλεγον: IAI 3p, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
Βλέπεις : PAI 2s, βλέπω, 1) to see, discern, of the bodily eye
συνθλίβοντά : PAPart asm, συνθλίβω, 1) to press together, press on all sides
λέγεις: PAI 2s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἥψατο: AMI 3s, ἅπτω, 1) to fasten to, adhere to  1a) to fasten fire to a thing, kindle, set of fire 
I’m a little confused at the disciples’ effrontery here. It is a wise guiding principle, when speaking to someone who is not stupid, to act as though what s/he has said is not stupid. Yet, the disciples’ question seems almost derisive. (More below)

32καὶ περιεβλέπετο ἰδεῖν τὴν τοῦτο ποιήσασαν. 
And he was looking around to see the one who had caused [it]. 
περιεβλέπετο: IMI 3s, περι, around + βλέπω, to see, discern, of the bodily eye
ἰδεῖν : AAInf, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes  2) to see with the mind, to perceive, know 
ποιήσασαν: AAPart asf, ποιέω, 1) to make  1a) with the names of things made, to produce, construct,  form, fashion, etc.  1b) to be the authors of, the cause
“the one” is feminine. I could be ‘she’ who had caused it and it might indicate that Jesus was not completely in the dark over who it was.

33  δὲ  φοβηθεῖσα καὶ τρέμουσα γυνὴ , εἰδυῖα  γέγονεν αὐτῇ, ἦλθεν καὶ 
προσέπεσεν αὐτῷ καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ πᾶσαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν. 
And the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what had happened in her, came and fell to him and said to him the whole truth. 
φοβηθεῖσα: APPart nsf, φοβέω to strike with fear, scare, frighten. Middle or passive as here, to be put in fear, take fright
τρέμουσα: PAPart nsf, τρέμω, 1) tremble  2) to fear, be afraid
εἰδυῖα: PerfAPart nsf, εἴδω , ἴδω, an obsol. form of the present tense, the place of which is supplied by ὁράω. The tenses coming from εἴδω and retained by usage form two families, of which one signifies to see, the other to know.
γέγονεν: PerfAI 3s, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being
ἦλθεν: AAI 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
προσέπεσεν: AAI 3s, προσπίπτω, 1) to fall forwards, fall down, prostrate one's self before
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
Re: fell, see v.22. The temple leader and the woman both fall before Jesus before speaking.

34  δὲ εἶπεν αὐτῇ, Θυγάτηρ,  πίστις σου σέσωκέν σε: ὕπαγε εἰς εἰρήνην, καὶ 
ἴσθι ὑγιὴς ἀπὸ τῆς μάστιγός σου. 
Yet he said to her, “Daughter, your faith has made you whole; go in peace and be healed from your scourge.  
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
σέσωκέν: PerfAI 3s, σῴζω, 1) to save, keep safe and sound, to rescue from danger or destruction
ὕπαγε : PAImpv 2s, ὑπάγω, 1) to lead under, bring under  2) to withdraw one's self, to go away, depart
ἴσθι: PAImpv 2s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
The word  is typically translated as a religious term, meaning 'saved,' or, in a healing story, 'heal.' It is a large term, meaning healing, making whole, rescuing. 

35Ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος ἔρχονται ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου λέγοντες ὅτι  
θυγάτηρ σου ἀπέθανεν: τί ἔτι σκύλλεις τὸν διδάσκαλον; 
As he was speaking they came for the ruler of the synagogue saying, “Your daughter died; why trouble the teacher any more?” 
λαλοῦντος: PAPart gsm, λαλέω, 1) to utter a voice or emit a sound  2) to speak  2a) to use the tongue or the faculty of speech
ἔρχονται: PMI 3p, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
λέγοντες: PAPart npm, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἀπέθανεν: AAI 3s, ἀποθνήσκω to die out, expire, become quite dead
σκύλλεις : PAI 2s, σκύλλω, 1) to skin, flay  2) to rend, mangle  2a) to vex, trouble, annoy  2b) to give one's self trouble, trouble one's self
I like how the lexicon from www.greattreasures.org says the meaning of ἀπέθανεν is “become quite dead.” Is there is a Greek word for “become slightly dead”? 

36 δὲἸησοῦς παρακούσας τὸν λόγον λαλούμενον λέγει τῷ ἀρχισυναγώγῳ, Μὴ φοβοῦ, μόνον πίστευε.
But Jesus paying no heed to the word that they had spoken, says to the ruler of the synagogue, “Do not fear, but believe.” 
παρακούσας: AAPart nsm, παρακούω, 1) to hear aside  1a) causally or carelessly or amiss  2) to be unwilling to hear  2a) on hearing to neglect, to pay no heed to  2b) to refuse to hear, pay no regard to, disobey 
λαλούμενον: PPPart asm, λαλέω, 1) to utter a voice or emit a sound  2) to speak
λέγει : PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
φοβοῦ: PMImpv 2s, φοβέω to strike with fear, scare, frighten. Middle or passive as here, to be put in fear, take fright 
πίστευε: PAImpv 2s, πιστεύω, 1) to think to be true, to be persuaded of, to credit, place confidence in  1a) of the thing believed  1a1) to credit, have confidence
Believing, here is the alternative to fearing more than doubting or skepticism. 

37καὶ οὐκ ἀφῆκεν οὐδένα μετ' αὐτοῦ συνακολουθῆσαι εἰ μὴ τὸν Πέτρον καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἰακώβου. 
And he did not permit anybody to accompany with him except Peter and James and John the brother of James. 
ἀφῆκεν: AAI 3s, ἀφίημι, 1) to send away  1a) to bid going away or depart … 2) to permit, allow, not to hinder 
συνακολουθῆσαι: AAInf, συνακολουθέω, 1) to follow together with others, to accompany
This sentence literally reads, “did not permit nobody” but two negatives don’t make a positive in Greek.

38καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ ἀρχισυναγώγου, καὶ θεωρεῖ θόρυβον καὶ κλαίοντας καὶ ἀλαλάζοντας πολλά, 
And coming the house of the ruler of the synagogue, and watching lament and weeping and loud wailing,
ἔρχονται: PMI 3p, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
θεωρεῖ: PAI 3s, θεωρέω, 1) to be a spectator, look at, behold  1a) to view attentively,
κλαίοντας: PAPart amp, κλαίω, 1) to mourn, weep, lament  1a) weeping as the sign of pain and grief for the thing signified  (i.e. for the pain and grief) 
ἀλαλάζοντας: PAPart amp, ἀλαλάζω, 1) to repeat frequently the cry "alala" as soldiers used to do on  entering into battle  2) to utter a joyful sound  3) to wail, lament 
It seems to me – based on the emphatic description of the wailing, the quick change of tone in v.40, and the way that Jesus throws out the wailers – that this description is more of a spectacle than the genuine grief we saw when the father fell at Jesus’ feet and begged.
The word ‘watching’ (θεωρεῖ) is transliterated into English as ‘theory.’ It is more than just seeing; it is a way of taking in the significance. ‘Lament’ is a noun, while ‘weeping’ and ‘wailing’ are participles.

39καὶ εἰσελθὼν λέγει αὐτοῖς, Τί θορυβεῖσθε καὶ κλαίετε; τὸ παιδίον οὐκ 
ἀπέθανεν ἀλλὰ καθεύδει. 
and having entered he says to them, “Why are you lamenting and weeping?  The child is not dead but sleeps.” 
εἰσελθὼν: AAPart nsm, εἰσέρχομαι, 1) to go out or come in: to enter  1a) of men or animals, as into a house or a city  1b) of Satan taking possession of the body of a person 
λέγει : PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
θορυβεῖσθε : PPI 2p, θορυβέω, 1) to make a noise or uproar, be turbulent  2) to disturb, throw into confusion  2a) to be troubled in mind  2b) to wail tumultuously
ἀπέθανεν: AAI 3s,
καθεύδει: PAI 3s, καθεύδω, 1) to fall asleep, drop off to sleep  2) to sleep  2a) to sleep normally  2b) euphemistically, to be dead 
The word “sleeps” (καθεύδει) can be used as a euphemism for death, but here is in contrast to it. (This is not the same word in John 11:11-12, referring to Lazarus’ death as ‘sleep.’)

40καὶ κατεγέλων αὐτοῦ. αὐτὸς δὲ ἐκβαλὼν πάντας παραλαμβάνει τὸν πατέρα τοῦ παιδίου καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ τοὺς μετ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ εἰσπορεύεται ὅ που ἦν τὸ παιδίον: 
And they were jeering him.  But having thrown all of them out he takes the father of the child and the mother and the ones with him, and entered the place where the child was;
κατεγέλων: IAI 3p, καταγελάω, 1) to deride 
ἐκβαλὼν: AAPart nsm, ἐκβάλλω, 1) to cast out, drive out, to send out  1a) with notion of violence 
παραλαμβάνει: PAI 3s, παραλαμβάνω, 1) to take to, to take with one's self, to join to one's self  1a) an associate, a companion  
εἰσπορεύεται: PMI 3s, εἰσπορεύομαι,v 1) to go into, enter  1a) of persons  
ἦν: IAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
In this scene, Mark has used 3 different verbs that could be rendered ‘enter’: ἔρχονται εἰς (v.38) in the middle voice; εἰσελθὼν (v.39) as a participle; and εἰσπορεύεται (v.40) in the middle voice. I don’t know what that means, but it is curious.
Does the quick turnabout from lament to jeering imply that the lament of this crowd was disingenuous? Or, it is indicative of intensity, when feelings can go from one extreme to another? My sense is that Jesus, or at least Mark as the storyteller, is not terribly sympathetic to the mourners.

41καὶ κρατήσας τῆς χειρὸς τοῦ παιδίου λέγει αὐτῇ, Ταλιθα κουμ,  ἐστιν μεθερμηνευόμενον Τὸ κοράσιον, σοὶ λέγω, ἔγειρε. 
And taking the hand of the child he says to her, “Talitha kum,” which is translated “The Maiden, I say to you, arise.” 
κρατήσας: AAPart, nsm, κρατέω, 1) to have power, be powerful  1a) to be chief, be master of, to rule  2) to get possession of  2a) to become master of, to obtain  2b) to take hold of
λέγει : PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἐστιν: PAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
μεθερμηνευόμενον: PPPart nsm,
λέγω: PAI 1s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἔγειρε: PAImpv 2s, ἐγείρω, 1) to arouse, cause to rise
I wonder why Mark, on occasion, makes use of an Aramaic phrase, then translates it. It happens in 7:34 when Jesus heals a deaf man and in 15:34 when Jesus cries out from the cross. 

42καὶ εὐθὺς ἀνέστη τὸ κοράσιον καὶ περιεπάτει, ἦν γὰρ ἐτῶν δώδεκα. καὶ 
ἐξέστησαν [εὐθὺς] ἐκστάσει μεγάλῃ. 
And immediately the maiden arose and walked around, for she was 12 years.  And great astonishment [immediately] overwhelmed (them).
ἀνέστη: AAI 3s, ἀνίστημι, 1) to cause to rise up, raise up  1a) raise up from laying down  1b) to raise up from the dead
περιεπάτει: IAI 3s, περιπατέω, 1) to walk  1a) to make one's way, progress; to make due use of opportunities  1b) Hebrew for, to live 
ἦν: IAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
ἐξέστησαν: AAI 3p, ἐξίστημι, 1) to throw out of position, displace  1a) to amaze, to astonish, throw into wonderment  1b) to be amazed, astounded  1c) to be out of one's mind, besides one's self, insane
The phrase “great amazement overcame” (ἐξέστησαν ἐκστάσει μεγάλῃ) might mean much more than I am letting on. Both ἐξέστησαν and ἐκστάσει have the prefix “out,” and imply being “out of one’s normal state of being.” Each one could refer to insanity. And, the fact that both terms are used – being redundant – along with the intensifying adverb “great” (μεγάλῃ), this could mean that the folks in the room (not the crowd that has been thrown out) are going bonkers. Some variants add ‘immediately’ (εὐθὺς), a very typical Markan word, to intensify this scene even more. 
I would suggest one possibility for this verse: The terms 'living' and 'dead' would compose our most basic categories in life. Like above, when I joked about the possibility of a word that means "slightly dead," we tend to hold these two states of being as complete opposites. And yet, here is a girl who was dead, and is now living. The mainstays of our expectations have been turned upside-down. That might explain the complete disorientation that the mother, father, Peter, James, and John experience.

43καὶ διεστείλατο αὐτοῖς πολλὰ ἵνα μηδεὶς γνοῖ τοῦτο, καὶ εἶπεν δοθῆναι 
αὐτῇ φαγεῖν. 
And he charged them repeatedly in order that nobody would know this, and said to give to her to eat. 
διεστείλατο: AMI 3s, διαστέλλομαι, 1) to draw asunder, divide, distinguish, dispose, order  2) to open one's self i.e. one's mind, to set forth distinctly  3) to admonish, order, charge
γνοῖ: AASubj 3s, γινώσκω, 1) to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of perceive, feel 
εἶπεν  AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain 
δοθῆναι : APInf, δίδωμι, 1) to give  2) to give something to someone  2a) of one's own accord to give one something, to his advantage 
φαγεῖν: AAInf, ἐσθίω, 1) to eat  2) to eat (consume) a thing  2a) to take food, eat a meal  3) metaph. to devour, consume 

Looking for linguistic connections between the outer story and inner story, we can name these:
Knowing γνοῖ (v.43) in this outer story and knowing ἔγνω (v.29) and recognizing ἐπιγνοὺς (v.30) in the inner story.
πολλὰ, which means ‘much’ but can take on the meaning of ‘repeated’ given the context, show up in vv. 21, 23, 24, 26 (2x) and 43.
The ruler of the synagogue and the bleeding woman both fall at Jesus’ feet (vv.22, 33).
In both stories there is some resistance to what Jesus says. The disciples’ response to Jesus question of “who grabbed my garment” sounds almost derisive. The crowd’s response to Jesus’ claim that the little girl was only sleeping was clearly derisive.
A woman who has suffered 12 years of bleeding and a girl who has lived 12 years (which might signify the time when menstruation would begin). 
Is there a contrast between a synagogue ruler and a hemorrhaging woman? Clean v. unclean? Mark does not  seem to make anything of her being 'unclean' as a result of her flow of blood. If she were, it would seem that the pressing crowd and Jesus would be unclean by being in contact with her. I don't know if there is a contrast intended regarding their standing in cleanliness or not. 


8 comments:

  1. Blessings and curses on you! I find your translation work to be most helpful but it always has the effect of sending me off down an unintended trail. The discoveries I make along these paths often mean that I end up far removed from the destination I imagined that I would reach when I set out.
    So keep it up and quit it!
    Thanks,
    Mike Bowers

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  2. Dear Mike,
    Thank you and Shut Up!
    Affectionately and Despisingly,
    Mark

    (BTW, I issued a 'blessing and curse' yesterday to the person who left cake pops for us at the church. My mouth blessed, my waist cursed.)

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  3. perhaps the princess bride was correct about how one could be "mostly dead" vs. "all dead." Thanks - i'm far away from my greek library but trying to get some work in, this was helpful!

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  4. Thanks for your work. This is most helpful.

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  5. Thanks for this work. I find it most helpful.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Thanks for your work. This is most helpful.

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  7. Presbybug (nice name, btw) and Sylvia,
    Thanks for your comments. May the conversation continue.
    Mark

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  8. This was a big help. Thanks.

    ReplyDelete

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