Monday, February 4, 2019

A Boatload of Fish

Below is a rough translation and some initial comments regarding Luke 5:1-10, the Revised Common Lectionary’s Gospel Reading for the Fifth Sunday after Epiphany. Your comments are always welcomed. 

1Ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ τὸν ὄχλον ἐπικεῖσθαι αὐτῷ καὶ ἀκούειν τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς ἦν ἑστὼς παρὰ τὴν λίμνην Γεννησαρέτ, 
Yet in the becoming the crowd to press against him and to hear the word of God he was having stood beside the lake of Gennesaret,
Ἐγένετο: AMI 3s, γίνομαι, 1) to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being
ἐπικεῖσθαι: PMInf, ἐπίκειμαι, 1) to lie upon or over, rest upon, be laid or placed upon  
ἀκούειν: PAInf, ἀκούω, 1) to be endowed with the faculty of hearing, not deaf
ἦν: IAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
ἑστὼς: PerfAPart nsm, ἵστημι, 1) to cause or make to stand, to place, put, set 
1. I’ve translated this fairly woodenly, which means that it is awkward and needs some refining for a final translation. One translation challenge is how to begin the verse. One possibility is to begin with the imperfect verb ἦν and the perfect participle ἑστὼς, which describe Jesus vis-à-vis the lake. The NRSV begins this verse, “Once while Jesus was standing beside the lake ....” The KJV, on the other hand, begins with the verb Ἐγένετο, which it translates quite often as “It came to pass.” And then there is the postpositive conjunction δὲ, used throughout this pericope in various ways. [“Postpositive” means that it is often in the second position but is translated in the first position. So, even though it rarely begins a sentence in Greek, appearing as the second word, it is usually translated as the first word in English.] δὲ could be translated “Then,” “But,” or “And” as a way of connecting this story to the previous story. That would be quite a contrast to the NRSV’s “Once ...” which makes the timing of this story random. I typically translate as “yet,” in order to keep it more neutral than ‘and’ or ‘but.’ 
2. Additionally, the only noun in the nominative case here is αὐτὸς (he). It appears quite late in the sentence and corresponds with ἦν (was). The verbs ἐπικεῖσθαιand ἀκούεινare in the infinitive mood, so “to press” and “to hear.” And τὸν ὄχλον(the crowd) is in the accusative case, which would normally be the object of a verb. Since Luke is often said to use excellent Greek, these translations problems are a better indicator of my own rudimentary abilities, rather than any kind of confusion in the text itself. 

καὶ εἶδεν δύο πλοῖα ἑστῶτα παρὰ τὴν λίμνην: οἱ δὲ ἁλιεῖς ἀπ' αὐτῶν 
ἀποβάντες ἔπλυνον τὰ δίκτυα. 
And he saw two boats having stood by the lake; and the fishers, having gone out of them, were washing the nets. 
εἶδεν: AAI 3s, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes  2) to see with the mind, to perceive, know
ἑστῶτα: PerfAPart apm, ἵστημι, 1) to cause or make to stand, to place, put, set
ἀποβάντες: AAPart npm, ἀποβαίνω, 1) to come down from, i.e. a ship  2) to turn out, result, to be the outcome
ἔπλυνον: IAI 3p, πλύνω, 1) to wash: with reference to clothing
1. The perfect participle for “stood” is not easy to translate, especially because it is active and not passive. It is the same verb used in v.1 to describe Jesus’ position next to the lake. For a boat, I would typically say “moored” but I’m going for consistency. 

ἐμβὰς δὲ εἰς ἓν τῶν πλοίων,  ἦν Σίμωνος, ἠρώτησεν αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῆς γῆς 
ἐπαναγαγεῖν ὀλίγον, καθίσας δὲ ἐκ τοῦ πλοίου ἐδίδασκεν τοὺς ὄχλους. 
Then having boarded into one of the boats, which was Simon’s, he asked him to put out from the land a little, then having sat down, he was teaching the crowd out of the boat. 
ἐμβὰς: AAPart nsm, ἐμβάλλω, 1) to throw in, cast into 
ἦν: IAI 3s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
ἠρώτησεν: AAI 3s, ἐρωτάω, 1) to question  2) to ask  2a) to request, entreat, beg, beseech
ἐπαναγαγεῖν: AAInf, ἐπανάγω, 1) to lead up upon  1a) a ship upon the deep, to put out  2) to lead back  3) to return
καθίσας: AAPart nsm, καθίζω, 1) to make to sit down  
ἐδίδασκεν: IAI 3p, διδάσκω, 1) to teach
1. I don’t know whether to use ‘launch’ or ‘put out’ for ἐπανάγω here and in the next verse. I want to use nautical terms to talk about nautical things, but without sounding like a landlubber trying to pass. (Which might be what Jesus is doing in this text, btw.) 
2. While Simon is not yet a ‘disciple,’ so to speak, we have met him already in c.4, when Jesus is at his house and heals his mother-in-law – if we assume it is the same Simon. 
3. What an interesting scenario here, with the lake and a boat as the makeshift place for Jesus to sit and teach, as opposed to the synagogue in Nazareth where he did the same. I could almost stop with this verse and imagine this text as a way of reframing what holy space looks like, or what a church of the people can be. By the way, unlike in the Synagogue, there is no scroll of Isaiah for Jesus to read, yet he can still teach. Hmm… 

ὡς δὲ ἐπαύσατο λαλῶν, εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν Σίμωνα, Ἐπανάγαγε εἰς τὸ 
βάθος καὶ χαλάσατε τὰ δίκτυα ὑμῶν εἰς ἄγραν. 
Then as he finished speaking, he said to Simon, put out into the deep and let down your nets for a catch.
ἐπαύσατο: AMI 3s, παύω, 1) to make to cease or desist 2) to restrain a thing or person from something  3) to cease, to leave off 
λαλῶν: PAPart nsm, λαλέω, 1) to utter a voice or emit a sound 
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  
Ἐπανάγαγε: AAImpv 2s, ἐπανάγω, 1) to lead up upon  1a) a ship upon the deep, to put out 
χαλάσατε: AAImpv 2p, χαλάω, 1) to loosen, slacken, relax  2) to let down from a higher place to a lower
1. Oh, now he’s meddling. 

καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς Σίμων εἶπεν, Ἐπιστάτα, δι' ὅλης νυκτὸς κοπιάσαντες οὐδὲν 
ἐλάβομεν, ἐπὶ δὲ τῷ ῥήματί σου χαλάσω τὰ δίκτυα. 
And Simon having answered him said, Master, having toiled through all night we caught nothing, yet at your word I will let down the nets. 
ἀποκριθεὶς: APPart nsm, ἀποκρίνομαι, 1) to give an answer to a question proposed, to answer
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  
κοπιάσαντες: AAPart npm, κοπιάω, 1) to grow weary, tired, exhausted
ἐλάβομεν: AAI 1p, λαμβάνω, 1) to take  1a) to take with the hand, lay hold of, any person or thing  in order to use it 
χαλάσω: FAI 1s, χαλάω, 1) to loosen, slacken, relax  2) to let down from a higher place to a lower
1. “Master” – Only Luke uses this term and he uses it 7 times, always with reference to Jesus by the disciples. It means something more like “boss” or “superintendent” than a slave-owning master. It is interesting that Simon uses the term now, not after this astonishing event. It indicates that he already recognizes Jesus’ authority in some way. And it is reasonable to assume that at Jesus’ request he went from being outside of the boat, cleaning his nets, to guiding it offshore for Jesus to teach, with the nets on board. 
2. The livelihood of fishing depended on the difficult, meticulous activity of keeping nets clean of corrosives (although the Lake Genneseret [or Sea of Galilee elsewhere] is freshwater) and gunk, mended, and ready to be used again on the next day. It seems an honor that a fisher like Simon, after doing this kind of work, would let a non-fisher like Jesus direct him back into the depths to try again. 

καὶ τοῦτο ποιήσαντες συνέκλεισαν  πλῆθος ἰχθύων πολύ, διερρήσσετο δὲ 
τὰ δίκτυα αὐτῶν. 
And when they had done this they caught a great fill of fish, so that their nets were breaking. 
ποιήσαντες: AAPart npm, ποιέω, 1) to make  1a) with the names of things made, to produce, construct,  form, fashion, etc.
συνέκλεισαν: AAI 3p, συγκλείω, 1) to shut up together, enclose  1a) of a shoal of fishes in a net 
διερρήσσετο: IPI 3s, 
1. The language has changed from the singular Simon to “they.”

καὶ κατένευσαν τοῖς μετόχοις ἐν τῷ ἑτέρῳ πλοίῳ τοῦ ἐλθόντας 
συλλαβέσθαι αὐτοῖς: καὶ ἦλθον, καὶ ἔπλησαν ἀμφότερα τὰ πλοῖα ὥστε 
βυθίζεσθαι αὐτά. 
And they signaled to their partners in the other boat which had come to haul with them; and they came, and they filled both boats so that they began to sink.
κατένευσαν: AAI 3p, κατανεύω, 1) to nod to, make a sign  2) to indicate to another by a nod or sign what one wishes him to do 
ἐλθόντας: AAPart apm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come
συλλαβέσθαι: AMInf, συλλαμβάνω, 1) to take together, to enclose in the hands; to take or seize altogether, enclose and take, to take with, to help. 
ἦλθον: AAI 3p, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come
ἔπλησαν: AAI 3p, πίμπλημι,to fill, fill up.
βυθίζεσθαι: PPInf, βυθίζω, 1) to plunge into the deep, to sink
1. I cannot help but to see Jesus just laughing uproariously at these fishers, scrambling to get the nets in the boats, signaling for help, caught between being amazed and being too busy to be amazed. 
2. The term μετόχοις “partners” is new to me. It shows up in Luke here, and in the letter to the Hebrews 5x. It is often translated ‘partakers.’ 
3. The ridiculously successful haul of fish, especially after these same fishers had toiled all night and caught nothing, seems to be a sign of abundance. In itself, this amazing event seems kind of mundane – perhaps not to the fishers who depend on their catch for their livelihood, but relative to healing, exorcising, or raising the dead it seems to be a small thing. So, is it asking for an allegory?

ἰδὼν δὲ Σίμων Πέτρος προσέπεσεν τοῖς γόνασιν Ἰησοῦ λέγων, Ἔξελθε ἀπ' 
ἐμοῦ, ὅτι ἀνὴρ ἁμαρτωλός εἰμι, κύριε: 
And having seen/understood, Simon Peter fell on his knees saying to Jesus, “Go away from me, because I am a sinner, Lord;” 
ἰδὼν: AAPart nsm, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes  2) to see with the mind, to perceive, know 
προσέπεσεν: AAI 3s, προσπίπτω, 1) to fall forwards, fall down, prostrate one's self before,  in homage or supplication: at one's feet 
λέγων: PAPart nsm, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak 
Ἔξελθε: AAImpv 2s, ἐξέρχομαι, 1) to go or come forth of
εἰμι: PAI 1s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present  
1. Something about Simon Peter seeing/understanding the meaning of the great haul of fish leads him to see his own sinfulness with astonishing clarity. This verse is reminiscent of John Calvin’s claim that corresponding with seeing God’s glory is also an awareness of human sinfulness. 
2. This verse also seems to indicate that this great haul has meaning beyond a lot of fish in a net. Perhaps what Simon Peter sees is nothing more than that Jesus just did something marvelous, so he must be more than just a compelling teacher. Or, perhaps Simon sees a glimpse of glory behind the haul. 
3. It would be interesting to know what Simon means when he calls himself a ‘sinner.’ Whatever Simon has in mind by this statement does not deter Jesus from calling him to become a fisher of people. Jesus does not tell him to repent; He does not tell him to go and sin no more; he does not tell him to sell all that he has. Simon says that he is a sinner and Jesus calls him to become a fisher of people. Boom. 
4. Luke uses the word ἁμαρτωλός (sinner/s) 18x, much more than the other gospels. Sinners are people with whom Jesus eats and drinks (and is criticized for doing so), they are called, sometimes they repent, sometimes they seem to be notorious, and it was by the hands of “sinful men” that Jesus was put to death. 

θάμβος γὰρ περιέσχεν αὐτὸν καὶ πάντας τοὺς σὺν αὐτῷ ἐπὶ τῇ ἄγρᾳ τῶν 
ἰχθύων ὧν συνέλαβον, 
For amazement surrounded him and all those who were with him at the catch of fish which they hauled. 
περιέσχεν: AAI 3s, περιέχω, 1) to surround, encompass, to seize
συνέλαβον: AAI 3p, συλλαμβάνω, 1) to seize, take: one as prisoner  
1. θάμβος can be an adjective (amazed) or a noun (amazement). I am reading it as a noun, and since it is in the nominative case, as the subject of this phrase, “For amazement seized him and all who were with him.” This is the same verb used in 4:36, naming the crowd’s reaction to Jesus commanding unclean spirits to leave their victim. I think the word only refers to amazement, without necessarily indicating whether that amazement is compelling or repelling. “Amazed” often sounds compelling, while “astounded” can sound repelling. I’m not sure if the word itself carries either meaning or if the nature of the response indicates whether this is a positive or negative reaction. Since the “for” indicates that this amazement is the reason Simon told Jesus to leave him, it remains ambiguous – similar to how Rudolph Otto describe the mysterium tremendum et fascinansas both a compelling and repelling mystery of the numinous. 
2. θάμβος is different from the reaction of the Nazareth synagogue crowd in 4: 22, which is the verb θαυμάζω.  
3. Many translations treat περιέσχεν (see definitions above) as if it means ‘to be’, rendering it “he wasastonished” (KJV) or “he and all who were with him wereamazed” (NRSV). The subject of this verb is “amazement” and “him” is the object. 

10 ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ἰάκωβον καὶ Ἰωάννην υἱοὺς Ζεβεδαίου, οἳ ἦσαν κοινωνοὶ τῷ 
Σίμωνι. καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς τὸν ΣίμωναἸησοῦς,Μὴφοβοῦ:ἀπὸτοῦνῦνἀνθρώπους ἔσῃ ζωγρῶν.
And likewise also were James and John, sons of Zebedee, who were companions of Simon.  And Jesus said to Simon, “Do not fear; from now on you be catching people.
ἦσαν: IAI 3p, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present 
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain 
φοβοῦ: PMImpv 2s, 
ἔσῃ: FMI 2s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
ζωγρῶν: PAPart nsm, ζωγρέω, 1) to take alive  2) to take, catch, capture
1. In this verse, Luke uses κοινωνοὶ (companions) and not μετόχοις (partners) to name the relationship between Simon, James, and John. 
2. This cannot be an exhaustive list, since there were crews in both boats. Maybe Simon , James, and John were the boat owners, and others the hired hands. Maybe they were the boat users and other the temp hands. Or, maybe they are just the ones who factor into Luke’s story by name later. 
3. I don’t know enough about the Galilean fishing industry to know how it works, but I do wear a way cool Greek Fishing Hat during the winter! KC Hanson knows a lot about that industry and you can read about it here. Hanson notes, 
Both the physical and social geographies of Galilee are heavily impacted by an inland waterway known by various names in antiquity, but most commonly as the Sea of Galilee. This body of water is currently approximately 7 miles wide and 12.5 miles long, but the dimensions may have been slightly different in antiquity (Freyne 1992:900; Josephus, War 3.506). The importance of fish in Palestinian society is signaled by several geographical names (Wuellner 1967:28-33). Jerusalem had a "fish gate" (Neh 3:3). The capital of Gaulanitus was Bethsaida ("Fishing Village" or "Temple of the Fish-God"), located on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee (Mark 6:45). And the Greek name for the town of Magdala on the western shore of Galilee was Tarichaeae ("Processed-Fishville").
4. James and John were ‘likewise also,’ surrounded by amazement at the haul of fish. But, of course, that is redundant because v.9 already said that everyone with Simon was surrounded by amazement. I can only guess that James and John were, perhaps, in the other boat and the referents of v.9 were those in Simon’sboat. Or, that they are lifted up because they will figure more prominently in the remainder of Luke’s story than the other, unnamed people present. 
5. “Do not fear.” We’ve heard this phrase in Luke before – in the Christmas story repeatedly. It is the assurance that is often given when on realizes the presence of the holy and it often comes when one is amazed (θάμβος, v.10). 
6. “From now on you will catch people.” I wonder if Luke is remembering this declaration in Acts, when he makes occasional reference to the ‘thousands’ or ‘many’ that were saved/added to the church on various occasions. The kind of abundance signaled in this story stands in a paradoxical relationship to the kind of scarcity of disciples in many other of Luke’s stories. 

 11 καὶ καταγαγόντες τὰ πλοῖα ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν ἀφέντες πάντα ἠκολούθησαν 
αὐτῷ.
And when they had brought the boats to the land, they left all and followed him.  
καταγαγόντες: AAPart npm, κατάγω, 1) to lead down, bring down  2) to bring the vessel from deep water to the land
ἀφέντες: AAPart npm, ἀφίημι, 1) to send away  1a) to bid going away or depart
ἠκολούθησαν: AAI 3p, ἀκολουθέω, 1) to follow one who precedes, join him as his attendant,  accompany him
1. Robert Scharlemann has written very insightfully about what he calls “acolouthetic reason,” based on the word for “follow” here. He argues that it is a different kind of reasoning than what has long been defined as knowing, doing, and feeling in the areas of philosophy, ethic, and aesthetics. Acolouthetic reason is immediate, non-reflective reason when the call elicits a response not mediated by weighing the cost or considering the options. The costs and the options come, in time, but the call and response is prior to that, not a result of it. I find Scharlemann’s argument very similar to what Schleiermacher called “the feeling of absolute dependence,” which is prior to knowing and doing. 
2. A part of me hopes that there was at least one hard-hearted sinner among the fishers, to deal with two boatloads of fish and not to let them just sit there and rot. Yuck! And, of course, later perhaps this person could come around and follow Jesus. 
3. As a child we would sing in church, “I will make you fishers of men,” demonstrating that we knew our Bible and embraced non-inclusive gender language. But, while singing we would gesture as if we were casting our line with a rod and reel. It was fine, a nice children’s moment and I probably benefitted from those kinds of songs more than I realize. But, it also fed into a kind of “personal evangelism” model that I was taught, since I knew full well that casting a line from a rod meant catching one fish at a time, two at the most (since we usually baited two hooks on our line when we went fishing.) It would have been a little more accurate narratively to gesture throwing a dragnet into the water, just as it might have been more accurate to imagine evangelism as more of a movement, a group phenomenon, calling a people to turn around and participate in the Reign of God at hand, rather than a personalized approach. Even here, as Jesus is addressing Simon, James and John are parts of the response. I think the intensely personal approach to evangelism and faith are how American individualism invites us to read, hear, and gesture these stories. 

9 comments:

  1. Amazement: This word reminded of the Pentecost story in Acts. The fullness of the fish in the nets and the fullness of the gifts of tongues has a similar quality about it.

    Simon's response to Jesus: My pastor suggested an interpretation that had been in my mind, as well, that Simon's initial response was actually one of sarcastic compliance. "Oh you think you should put out again? Well, we WERE just out all night and caught nothing, but what do I know, it's not like I've spent my whole adult life fishing or anything; YOU think we should go out again, so clearly YOUR opinion is what matters," etc, etc. Such an interpretation is quite believable to me, and also better explains Peter's confession of sin than mere disbelief.

    I didn't notice till you pointed it out, but I *love* the fact that Jesus calls him to his ministry immediately upon his self-identification as a sinner. It says to me that simply being aware that you are a sinner is the necessary and sufficient condition to participate in the work of the Reign. (I'm coming from a mimetic theory standpoint here, where everything is about patterns of desire.)

    What happened to the fish? Oh, I never wondered about that before! I think they must have been left for anyone who wanted or needed them: a little sign of the Jubilee, when all crops must be left as public property, transposed into piscine terms. :)

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  2. I really appreciate the way you've taken the abundance of the catch of fish and made it a "free fish" day! The abundance of Pentecost is a nice contribution.
    Thanks for chiming in.

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  3. Some more thoughts and comments: The fishing is bracketed by Jesus teaching and the disciples leaving and following. Presumably, there's a connection?

    Jesus has been teaching 'the word of G-d' (v1); that word creates and is performative. When G-d said let the seas teem with living creatures, they did; likewise here. Jesus' so-called miracles are reruns of creation. That creative, authoritative word is also then obeyed by humans and by fish.

    Its an abundance story. Like the feeding of the thousands and the supply of wine, the fish are supplied because humans are empty (no fish, no bread, no wine). Fish, bread, wine will flap the ears of the sacramentalist!

    There must be a link between this story and that in John 21. The use of 'Simon Peter' and 'Lord' (only in v8) is imitated in John 21. Is Luke's story also a post-Easter one?

    Simon Peter as 'sinner': was it partly because he worked with fish, which were both clean and unclean? Was he constantly in need of ritual washing?

    When Jesus says "Fear not; you will catch people", this is addressed only to Simon (and hardly can = evangelism/mission). The verb 'catch' in the OT and other literature is rarely used as a 'nice' word. It denotes enslavement (like in war, the defeated are captured); or, often the verb is used of G-d who brings retribution, justice etc.

    'Don't be afraid' very often is followed by a message that will produce just that - fear! Like, Mary, don't be afraid; you're gonna get pregnant. Why would Simon be afraid? Was he to be the one to decide on who and what is clean and unclean? Would he have to make calls that were not popular? This episode is followed by the healing of a leper.

    The story is often headed 'The Calling of the First Disciples', but there is no explicit 'call' to follow here. They just leave everything and follow. The could leave everything (including the fish - which clearly are not the real point of the story) because they knew the Lord had the creative word to meet any need for survival (bread, fish and wine).

    Why are James and John included in such detail in v10? The narrative would be seamless without that whole verse. Why are they called 'koinonioi' of Simon?

    A net full!

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    1. Narratively Peter is often representative of all the disciples -- the prototype in both condition and action. And that others are named as his "partners" suggests that the call of Jesus isn't only to Peter. Jesus called disciples to call disciples. How then can this passage, at least in part, not be about mission/evangelism?

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  4. Really like the translation of ‘partners’ over partakers. Our churches use the symbol of a boat for the church - ol ship of Zion. But churches are landlubbing entities, not free floating. I think of the risks we don’t take as congregations to do this kind of fishing and catching of groups of people, partnered in groups along areas of vocation to impact those who keep our day to day operations as workers, going concerns. I’ve wondeted if the abundance of fish would have liberated Peter, James, John to follow Jesus as they could be free from anxieties in cari g for their families in tbis kind of abundance; or, maybe everyobd that day as Ralph Milton says, ‘each in the crowd received a ‘door’ prize. The other hired hands could easily have both marketed fish for sale or distributed for free the catch. Loved idea of individual evangelism as has been the approach of so many, being contrasted with this dragnet evangelism. I wonder how that looks in 2019? Thanks Mark. Confession of sin goes nicely with Isaiah 6.1-8. Crowded out to the water’s edge, he boarded a boat. What is our teaching/preaching missing that crowds are seldom pushing us to the edges of safe boundaries offered on land? Have we ventured enough into the chaos of the great depths of human suffering? I truly enjoy your site! Raponzil

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    1. Thanks for your thoughts and your kind comments.
      MD

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  5. ζωγρέω, ζώγρω; perfect passive participle ἐζωγρημενος; (ζοως alive, and ἀγρέω (poetic form of ἀγρεύω, which see));
    1. to take alive (Homer, Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, others; the Sept.). So catch - ἀγρεύω is used in 5:4. Catching alive - taking prisoner - can be either in the context of empire (violent detention against one's will) or in the context of consciousness - capturing attention, understanding, or one's mind (i.e. - you caught me, you caught my attention). Life catch seems to suggest the latter...

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    1. I have always been intrigued by the double-meaning of words like capture, captivate, captive, catch, etc. because they can go either in the direction forced captivity or a kind of lovely enchantment. I think of the distinction Paul Tillich would make between heteronomy - a law from the other; and theonomy - the law of God that corresponds with our innermost desires. Each of them could be a kind of captivity. Hmm..

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