Monday, March 23, 2015

While the Church Sleeps

Below is a rough translation and some preliminary remarks about Mark 14:32-65, the "Passion Sunday" reading for March 29, 2015. This is a long section out of an even longer Gospel reading for Passion Sunday. I welcome your comments, but a long reading like this may have to be consumed in small morsels! I know I'm getting bug-eyed!

Not to be missed in this long reading are some of the interesting dynamics at play. The utter failure of the disciples is what is captivating me the most at the moment. “Follow after me” is met with “they all fled.” “Stay here and watch” is met with “they fell asleep.” And so on. It is a heartbreaking depiction of the church – if I may think of the disciples as representing the church – and the Christ. One yields to God’s will after a massive struggle; the other fails in every way possible. The church that reads this text must be conflicted with awe for the one who can say “Nevertheless, not my will but yours” and with abject humility at our own failures to do the same. May God bless your reading and proclamation of this difficult text.

32 Καὶ ἔρχονται εἰς χωρίον οὗτὸ ὄνομα Γεθσημανί, καὶ λέγει τοῖς μαθηταῖς αὐτοῦ, Καθίσατε ὧδε ἕως προσεύξωμαι.
And he comes into a place which is named Gethsemane, and says to his disciples, “Sit here while I may pray.”
ἔρχονται: PMI 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons
Καθίσατε: AAImpv 2p, καθίζω, 1) to make to sit down
προσεύξωμαι: AMS 1s, προσεύχομαι, 1) to offer prayers, to pray
1. The word ‘pray’ in an aorist middle subjunctive, but it is hard to see how that can translate into English except awkwardly.

33 καὶ παραλαμβάνει τὸν Πέτρον καὶ [τὸν] Ἰάκωβον καὶ [τὸν] Ἰωάννην μετ' αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἤρξατο ἐκθαμβεῖσθαι καὶ ἀδημονεῖν,
And he takes Peter and James and John with him, and he began to be astounded and anguished,  
παραλαμβάνει: PAI 3s, παραλαμβάνω, 1) to take to, to take with one's self, to join to one's self
ἤρξατο: AMI 3s, ἄρχω, 1) to be chief, to lead, to rule, a. the idea of beginning has more or less weight or importance, so that it is brought out by a separate word:
ἐκθαμβεῖσθαι: PPInf, 2. intrans. to be struck with amazement; to be thoroughly amazed, astounded; In the NT only in the passive and by Mark:
ἀδημονεῖν: PAInf, ἀδημονέω, 1) to be troubled, great distress or anguish, depressed
1. The word I translate “astounded” (ἐκθαμβεῖσθαι) is only found in Mark in the NT, in these places:
      Mar 9:15 ...they beheld him, were greatly amazed, and running to...
      Mar 14:33 ...(our current text)
      Mar 16:5 ...white garment; and they were affrighted.
      Mar 16:6  ...saith unto them, Be not affrighted: Ye seek Jesus..
2.The  word I translate “anguished” (ἀδημονεῖν) only appears here in Mark, and literally means ‘heavy.’

34 καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Περίλυπός ἐστιν ἡ ψυχή μου ἕως θανάτου: μείνατε ὧδε
καὶ γρηγορεῖτε.
And says to them, “My soul is devastated unto death; remain here and keep watch.
λέγει: PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
Περίλυπός: nsf, περίλυπος, 1) very sad, exceedingly sorrowful  2) overcome with sorrow so much as to cause one's death
μείνατε: AAImpv 2p, μένω, 1) to remain, abide  1a) in reference to place
γρηγορεῖτε: PAImpv 2p, 1. watch [verb] -ed, -eth, -ing to keep awake, to watch
1. To this point, Jesus’ prayer in the garden involved being astounded, anguished, and devastated.
2. The other disciples are to sit; the three are to remain and to keep watch – all imperatives.
3. The word I have translated “devastated” (Περίλυπός) is used one other time in Mark (6:26) to describe how Herod felt when he had agreed to execute John the Baptist.
4. It is my judgment that the nighttime, the interior location, and now the three disciples keeping watch are signs that Jesus knows his arrest is imminent, but he has some wrestling with God to do first. After his praying, he is ready to face the betrayer and captors.

35 καὶ προελθὼν μικρὸν ἔπιπτεν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, καὶ προσηύχετο ἵνα εἰ δυνατόν ἐστιν παρέλθῃ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ ἡ ὥρα,
And having gone forth a little he was falling to the ground, and was praying in order that if it is possible the hour might pass from him.
προελθὼν: AAPart nsm, προέρχομαι, 1) to go forward, go on 2) to go before 2a) to go before, precede 2b) to go before, in the advance of another
ἔπιπτεν: IAI 3s, πίπτω, 1) to descend from a higher place to a lower 1a) to fall (either from or upon)  1a1) to be thrust down  1b) metaph. to fall under judgment, came under condemnation  2) to descend from an erect to a prostrate position
προσηύχετο: IMI 3s, προσεύχομαι, 1) to offer prayers, to pray
παρέλθῃ: AAS 3s, παρέρχομαι, 1) to go past, pass by  1a) of persons moving forward  1a1) to pass by  1b) of time  1b1) an act continuing for a time
1. In John 12, Jesus says, ‘Now my soul is troubled. And what should I say—“Father, save me from this hour”? No, it is for this reason that I have come to this hour.’ Mark describes this concurrence with God’s will to be much more difficult. Jesus is astounded, anguished, devastated, and falls on the ground praying for another possibility. All of happens before the heroic prayer of the next verse.

36 καὶ ἔλεγεν, Αββα ὁ πατήρ, πάντα δυνατά σοι: παρένεγκε τὸ ποτήριον τοῦτο ἀπ' ἐμοῦ: ἀλλ' οὐ τί ἐγὼ θέλω ἀλλὰ τί σύ.
And was saying, “Abba Father, all things [are] possible to you; remove this cup from me; but not what I will but what you [will].”
ἔλεγεν: IAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
παρένεγκε: AAImpv 2s, παραφέρω, 1) to bear to, bring to, put before  2) to lead aside from the right course or path, …  3a) to cause to pass by, to remove
θέλω: PAI 1s, θέλω, 1) to will, have in mind, intend
1. The bracketed words are implied, but not in the Greek text.
2. In my mind, the last phrase of this prayer is what makes Jesus the Christ.
3. I have to wonder how people imagine God heard this prayer. Was God similarly anguished? Was the eternal God unmoved by the momentary anguish of the beloved son (like a parent is unmoved by the wailing of a child struggling against a needed nap)? Was God angry at the failings of human sin and demanding this sacrificial appeasement? Was God heartbroken, yet still demanding justice be done? Was God aghast, yet confident that the death of an innocent scapegoat would break the power of mimetic sin?

37 καὶ ἔρχεται καὶ εὑρίσκει αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας, καὶ λέγει τῷ Πέτρῳ, Σίμων, καθεύδεις; οὐκ ἴσχυσας μίαν ὥραν γρηγορῆσαι;
And he comes and finds them sleeping, and he says to Peter, “Simon are you asleep? Were you not strong enough to watch one hour?”
ἔρχεται: PMI 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come 1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
εὑρίσκει: PAI 3s, εὑρίσκω, 1) to come upon, hit upon, to meet with  1a) after searching, to find a thing sought  1b) without previous search, to find (by chance), to fall in with
καθεύδοντας: PAPart apm, καθεύδω, 1) to fall asleep, drop off to sleep  2) to sleep
λέγει: PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
καθεύδεις: PAI 2s, καθεύδω, 1) to fall asleep, drop off to sleep
ἴσχυσας: AAI 2s, ἰσχύω, 1) to be strong  1a) to be strong in body, to be robust, to be in sound health  2) to have power
γρηγορῆσαι: AAInf, 1. watch [verb] -ed, -eth, -ing to keep awake, to watch
1. In contrast to Jesus heroic acquiescence to God’s will, Simon is sleeping. This is a sermon waiting to happen – God grieves, the church sleeps; Christ suffers, the church sleeps; Death, pain, agony abound, the church sleeps.

38 γρηγορεῖτε καὶ προσεύχεσθε, ἵνα μὴ ἔλθητε εἰς πειρασμόν: τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα πρόθυμον ἡ δὲ σὰρξ ἀσθενής.
Keep watch and pray, in order that you may not come into trial; the spirit ready but the flesh feeble.
γρηγορεῖτε: PAImpv 2p γρηγορέω to keep awake, to watch
προσεύχεσθε: PMImpv 2p, προσεύχομαι, 1) to offer prayers, to pray
ἔλθητε: AASubj 2p, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons
πρόθυμον: nsm, πρόθυμος, 1) ready, willing
1. This is the only use of the word ἀσθενής (feeble) in Mark. It is the same word that is found in Matthew 25 to name those who are “sick” (along with the stranger, the naked, and the imprisoned).
2. Most translations supply the verb ‘is’ for “the spirit [is] ready, but the flesh [is] feeble.” Doing so makes the last clause a separate declaration. If, however, we do not supply the verbs, the last clause sounds like it defines what it is to “come into trial.” To come into trial is to be in that moment when the spirit is ready but the flesh is too feeble to keep watch for one hour.

39 καὶ πάλιν ἀπελθὼν προσηύξατο τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον εἰπών.
And going away he prayed again saying the same word.
ἀπελθὼν: AAPart nsm, ἀπέρχομαι, 1) to go away, depart
προσηύξατο: AMI 3s, προσεύχομαι, 1) to offer prayers, to pray
εἰπών: AAPart nms, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain

40 καὶ πάλιν ἐλθὼν εὗρεν αὐτοὺς καθεύδοντας, ἦσαν γὰρ αὐτῶν οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ καταβαρυνόμενοι, καὶ οὐκ ᾔδεισαν τί ἀποκριθῶσιν αὐτῷ.
And again he went and found them sleeping, for their eyes were being heavy, and they had not known what they might respond to him.
ἐλθὼν: AAPart nms, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons
εὗρεν: AAI 3s, εὑρίσκω, 1) to come upon, hit upon, to meet with  1a) after searching, to find a thing sought
καταβαρυνόμενοι: PPPart npm, heavy
ᾔδεισαν: PluAI 3p, to see, to perceive, to know …
ἀποκριθῶσιν: APS 3p, ἀποκρίνομαι, 1) to give an answer to a question proposed, to answer  2) to begin to speak, but always where something has preceded  (either said or done) to which the remarks refer
1. What an interesting contrast between Jesus’ heavy heart (v.33) and the disciples’ heavy eyelids.
2. This is a curious use of the pluperfect tense, “they had not known.”

41 καὶ ἔρχεται τὸ τρίτον καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς, Καθεύδετε τὸ λοιπὸν καὶ ἀναπαύεσθε; ἀπέχει: ἦλθεν ἡ ὥρα, ἰδοὺ παραδίδοται ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἰς τὰς χεῖρας τῶν ἁμαρτωλῶν.
And he comes the third [time] and says to them, “Sleep the while and rest, it is enough/over; the hour has come, behold the son of man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.
Καθεύδετε: PAImp 2p, καθεύδω, 1) to fall asleep, drop off to sleep  2) to sleep  2a) to sleep normally  2b) euphemistically, to be dead  2c) metaph.  2c1) to yield to sloth and sin  2c2) to be indifferent to one's salvation
ἀναπαύεσθε: PMImp 2p, ἀναπαύω, 1) to cause or permit one to cease from any movement or labor  in order to recover and collect his strength  2) to give rest, refresh, to give one's self rest, take rest  3) to keep quiet, of calm and patient expectation
ἀπέχει: PAI 3s, ἀπέχω, 1) have  1a) to hold back, keep off, prevent  1b) to have wholly or in full, to have received  1c) it is enough, sufficient  2) to be away, absent, distant  3) to hold one's self off, abstain
ἦλθεν: AAI 3s, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons
παραδίδοται: PPI 3s, παραδίδωμι, 1) to give into the hands (of another)
1.The word  is variously translated as “betrayed” or “handed over.” It occurs often in Mark:
Mar 1:14 Now after that John was put in prison, Jesus came into...
Mar 3:19 ...Iscariot, which also betrayed him: and they...
Mar 4:29 ...when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth...
Mar 7:13 ...your tradition, which ye have delivered: and many such...
Mar 9:31 ...Son of man is delivered into the hands...
Mar 10:33 ...Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief...
Mar 10:33 ...to death, and shall deliver him to the...
Mar 13:9 ...to yourselves: for they shall deliver you up to councils; and...
Mar 13:11 ...lead you, and deliver you up, take no thought...
Mar 13:12 Now the brother shall betray the brother to...
Mar 14:10 ...chief priests, to betray him unto them...
Mar 14:11 ...he sought how he might conveniently betray him.
Mar 14:18 ...eateth with me shall betray me.
Mar 14:21 ...Son of man is betrayed! good were it...
Mar 14:41 ...Son of man is betrayed into the hands...
Mar 14:42 ...us go; lo, he that betrayeth me is at...
Mar 14:44 And he that betrayed him had given...
Mar 15:1 ...him away, and delivered him to Pilate...
Mar 15:10 ...the chief priests had delivered him for envy...
Mar 15:15 ...unto them, and delivered Jesus, when he...
2.The phrase, “Sleep the while and rest; it is enough” is very curious. Is it irony? Is it a concession that this is all that they can do? The verbs for sleep and rest are in the imperative mood but the middle voice. Does that imply irony or something other than straight out imperatives?
3. “… the hands of sinners.” Sinners = the crowd with swords and cudgels (v.43), or perhaps the “chief priests, Scribes, and elders” whom the represented.

42 ἐγείρεσθε ἄγωμεν: ἰδοὺ ὁ παραδιδούς με ἤγγικεν.
Be awake and let us go; behold my betrayer has drawn near. 
ἐγείρεσθε: PPImpv 2p, ἐγείρω, 1) to arouse, cause to rise
ἄγωμεν: PASubj (hortatory subjunctive) 1p, ἄγω, 1) to lead, take with one  1a) to lead by laying hold of, and this way to bring to the  point of destination:
ἤγγικεν: PerfAI 3s, ἐγγίζω, 1) to bring near, to join one thing to another  2) to draw or come near to, to approach
1. I translate ἐγείρεσθε as “be awake” to capture the passive imperative voice.
2. It is a little ironic that Jesus tells those who were supposed to be keeping watch that the enemy is approaching.

43Καὶ εὐθὺς ἔτι αὐτοῦ λαλοῦντος παραγίνεται Ἰούδας εἷς τῶν δώδεκα καὶ μετ' αὐτοῦ ὄχλος μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων παρὰ τῶν ἀρχιερέων καὶ τῶν γραμματέων καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων.
And immediately, while he was yet speaking Judas, one of the twelve, came near and with him a crowd with swords and cudgels from the chief priests and the scribes and the elders.
λαλοῦντος: PAPart gsm, λαλέω, 1) to utter a voice or emit a sound  2) to speak  2a) to use the tongue or the faculty of speech
παραγίνεται: PMI 3s, παραγίνομαι, 1) to be present, to come near, approach  2) to come forth, make one's public appearance
1. John Dominic Crossan and Marcus Borg argue that the Chief Priests, Scribes, and elders had no such authority to send a policing or militarized force like this to arrest someone. However, Mark’s description could easily be an unofficial lynch mob. Mark says that there is something stealthy about this action (14:1), plus it is taking place at night, apart from the crowd, since the leaders previously wanted to seize Jesus but feared the crowd’s reaction.

44 δεδώκει δὲ ὁ παραδιδοὺς αὐτὸν σύσσημον αὐτοῖς λέγων, Ὃν ἂν φιλήσω
αὐτός ἐστιν: κρατήσατε αὐτὸν καὶ ἀπάγετε ἀσφαλῶς.
And the one who betrayed him had given a signal to them saying, “The one whom I embrace is he; overpower him and lead him away securely.”
δεδώκει: PluPerfAI 3s, δίδωμι, 1) to give  2) to give something to someone  2a) of one's own accord to give one something, to his advantage
παραδιδοὺς: PAPart nsm, παραδίδωμι, 1) to give into the hands (of another)  2) to give over into (one's) power or use
φιλήσω: AASubj 1s, φιλέω, 1) to love   1a) to approve of   1b) to like   1c) sanction   1d) to treat affectionately or kindly, to welcome, befriend   2) to show signs of love   2a) to kiss   3) to be fond of doing
κρατήσατε: AAImpv 2p, κρατέω, 1) to have power, be powerful  1a) to be chief, be master of, to rule  2) to get possession of
ἀπάγετε: PAImpv 2p, ἀπάγω, 1) to lead away  1a) esp. of those who are led off to trial, prison, or punishment
1. The word κρατήσατε can be translated “arrest” (Mk. 6:17). It can also indicate a spontaneous and illegitimate action (Mk. 12:12).  Pertaining to my comment above, I am not inclined to make it sound official.
2. People often question why Judas had to identify Jesus, since he was often working in public in plain sight. Bearing in mind that the capture of Jesus was done at night, stealthily, because the leaders feared the crowds; and that Judas would have known of the location where Jesus and the twelve would meet up in private; and that it was dark; it makes sense that Judas would both lead them to the gathering place and would have to identify for them which of the four (or maybe they are back with the eleven by now) Galilean men in the dark was the one they were after.

45 καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐθὺς προσελθὼν αὐτῷ λέγει, Ῥαββί, καὶ κατεφίλησεν αὐτόν.
And entering immediately he came to him saying, “Rabbi,” and kissed him lovingly.
ἐλθὼν: AAPart nsm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons
λέγει: PAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
κατεφίλησεν: AAI 3s, καταφιλέω, 1) to kiss much, kiss again and again, kiss tenderly
1. The root for καταφιλέω (kissed) is φιλέω, a word for love.

46 οἱ δὲ ἐπέβαλον τὰς χεῖρας αὐτῷ καὶ ἐκράτησαν αὐτόν.
And they threw hands on him and overpowered him. 
ἐπέβαλον: AAI 3p, ἐπιβάλλω, 1) to cast upon, to lay upon  1a) used of seizing one to lead him off as a prisoner
ἐκράτησαν: AAI 3s, κρατέω, 1) to have power, be powerful  1a) to be chief, be master of, to rule  2) to get possession of  2a) to become master of, to obtain  2b) to take hold of
1. I get the feeling that some of the ‘definitions’ that I am grabbing off of www.greekbible.com are informed more by ‘biblical expectations’ that this is a proper arrest than perhaps by common usage of the time. Notice how ἀπάγετε (v.44) and ἐκράτησαν (v.46) and συλλαβεῖν (v.48) are defined pertaining to “leading one off to prison.” These words can easily mean things not related to an official act of arresting someone.
2. The word “threw … on” (ἐπέβαλον) is part of a family of βάλλω verbs, the root of which means “to throw.”

47 εἷς δέ [τις] τῶν παρεστηκότων σπασάμενος τὴν μάχαιραν ἔπαισεν τὸν δοῦλον τοῦ ἀρχιερέως καὶ ἀφεῖλεν αὐτοῦ τὸ ὠτάριον.
Yet [a certain] one of those who were near having drawn the sword struck the servant of the chief priest and cut off his ear.
παρεστηκότων: PerfAPart gpm, παρίστημι, 1) to place beside or near 1a) to set at hand
σπασάμενος : AMPart nsm, 1. to draw, that is to say to pull. (a) Middle to draw out, pull out, as a sword.
ἔπαισεν: AAI 3s, παίω, 1) to strike, smite 2) to sting (to strike or wound with a sting)
ἀφεῖλεν: AAi 3s, ἀφαιρέω, 1) to take from, take away, remove  2) to cut off
1. I wonder if this action is less about fighting back than it is about identifying who this mob is. They are working in stealth but now the chief priest’s servant is marked and clearly identifiable as a participant in this lynch mob.

48 καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με;
And having answered Jesus said to them, “As against a thief you have come with swords and cudgels to seize me?
ἀποκριθεὶς: APPart nsm, ἀποκρίνομαι, 1) to give an answer to a question proposed, to answer 
εἶπεν: AAI 3s, λέγω, 1) to say, to speak  1a) affirm over, maintain
ἐξήλθατε: AAI 2p, ἐξέρχομαι, 1) to go or come forth of  1a) with mention of the place out of which one goes, or the  point from which he departs  1a1) of those who leave a place of their own accord
συλλαβεῖν: AAInf, συλλαμβάνω, 1) to seize, take: one as prisoner  2) to conceive, of a woman  2a) metaph. of lust whose impulses a man indulges  3) to seize for one's self
1.Mark uses the term λῃστὴν on 3 occasions. In 11:17, when Jesus says that they’ve turned the house of God into a den of thieves; here; and in 15:27, when Mark says that Jesus was crucified between two thieves. I seem to recall that it might be better translated as “bandit,” one who hides in dark places and victimizes travelers along the road. Bandits tend to pose a real problem in poorer and rural communities where people are likely to travel on foot in darkness.

49 καθ' ἡμέραν ἤμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διδάσκων καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με: ἀλλ' ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαί.
Daily I was in the temple teaching to you and you did not overpower me; but in order that the writings may be fulfilled.”
ἤμην: IMI 1s, εἰμί, 1) to be, to exist, to happen, to be present
ἐκρατήσατέ: AAI 2p, κρατέω, 1) to have power, be powerful  1a) to be chief, be master of, to rule  2) to get possession o
πληρωθῶσιν: APS 3p, πληρόω, 1) to make full, to fill up, i.e. to fill to the full    2) to render full, i.e. to complete
1. This could be “I was in the temple with you daily” or “Daily I was in the temple teaching to you.”
2. Is the "writing" being fulfilled from Zechriah 13, ‘Awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the man who is my associate,’ says the Lord of hosts. Strike the shepherd, that the sheep may be scattered; I will turn my hand against the little ones..., which Jesus cites in 14:27? If so, the agency behind this arrest - the "I" who is striking - is God. That would not suggest that the participants are guiltless, but that they are part of a larger narrative.

50 καὶ ἀφέντες αὐτὸν ἔφυγον πάντες.
And having left him, all fled.
ἀφέντες: AAPart npm, ἀφίημι, 1) to send away 1a) to bid going away or depart  1a1) of a husband divorcing his wife
ἔφυγον: AAI 3p, φεύγω, 1) to flee away, seek safety by flight
1.Contrary to what many English translations imply, the participle “leaving” (ἀφέντες) is not the same word that Jesus uses when he says that all of the disciples will desert him (14:27, σκανδαλίζω).
2. Grammatically, “all fled” could be the mob. In fact, for the next few verses, it could be that the mob fled Jesus and grabbed the unfortunate young man who ultimately got away. But, for Mark’s narrative, that would be disjointed, since “they” led Jesus to the chief priests, etc. in v. 53.
3. Remembering Jesus’ words from Mark 8:34, “If any want to become my followers, let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me,” this flight is a complete and utter failure of discipleship.

51 Καὶ νεανίσκος τις συνηκολούθει αὐτῷ περιβεβλημένος σινδόνα ἐπὶ γυμνοῦ, καὶ κρατοῦσιν αὐτόν:
And a certain young man was following with him, nakedness wrapped in linen, and they overpowered him.
συνηκολούθει: IAI 3s, συνακολουθέω, 1) to follow together with others, to accompany
περιβεβλημένος: PerfMPart nsm, περιβάλλω, 1) to throw around, to put around  1a) to surround a city with a bank (palisade)  1b) of garments, to clothe one
κρατοῦσιν: PAI 3p, κρατέω, 1) to have power, be powerful  1a) to be chief, be master of, to rule  2) to get possession of

52 ὁ δὲ καταλιπὼν τὴν σινδόνα γυμνὸς ἔφυγεν.
Yet leaving behind the linen he fled naked.
καταλιπὼν: AAPart nsm, καταλείπω, 1) to leave behind  1a) to depart from, leave
ἔφυγεν: AAI 3s, φεύγω, 1) to flee away, seek safety by flight   2) metaph. to flee (to shun or avoid by flight) something   abhorrent, esp. vices
1. I’m just going to put it out there that none of the explanations that I’ve seen of this young man and his fleeting or his nakedness makes any sense to me.
2. There are people running away, an earless servant, and a naked fleeing young man. Quite an event.

53 Καὶ ἀπήγαγον τὸν Ἰησοῦν πρὸς τὸν ἀρχιερέα, καὶ συνέρχονται πάντες οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ πρεσβύτεροι καὶ οἱ γραμματεῖς.
And they led away Jesus to the high priest and all of the chief priests and the elders and the scribes gathered themselves together.
ἀπήγαγον: AAI 3p, ἀπάγω, 1) to lead away  1a) esp. of those who are led off to trial, prison, or punishment
συνέρχονται: PMI 3p, συνέρχομαι, 1) to come together  1a) to assemble

54 καὶ ὁ Πέτρος ἀπὸ μακρόθεν ἠκολούθησεν αὐτῷ ἕως ἔσω εἰς τὴν αὐλὴν τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, καὶ ἦν συγκαθήμενος μετὰ τῶν ὑπηρετῶν καὶ θερμαινόμενος πρὸς τὸ φῶς.
And Peter from afar followed to him directly into the courtyard of the chief priest, and was, sitting together with the guards and warming himself to the light.
ἠκολούθησεν: AAI 3s, ἀκολουθέω, 1) to follow one who precedes, join him as his attendant,  accompany him  2) to join one as a disciple, become or be his disciple
συγκαθήμενος: PMPart nsm, συγκάθημαι, 1) to sit together, to sit with one another
θερμαινόμενος: PMPart nsm, to make warm, to heat; mid. to warm one’s self:
1.The parallel action between vv.53 and 54 is interesting. The Chief Priests, Scribes and Elders gather together; Peter gathers together with the guards. Another way of depicting the disciple’s abysmal failure.

55 οἱ δὲ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ ὅλον τὸ συνέδριον ἐζήτουν κατὰ τοῦ Ἰησοῦ μαρτυρίαν εἰς τὸ θανατῶσαι αὐτόν, καὶ οὐχ ηὕρισκον:
Yet the chief priest and the entire Sanhedrin were seeking against Jesus a witness to put him to death, and they did not find any.
ἐζήτουν: IAI 3p, ζητέω, 1) to seek in order to find  1a) to seek a thing  1b) to seek [in order to find out] by thinking, meditating,  reasoning, to enquire into
θανατῶσαι: AAInf, θανατόω, 1) to put to death  2) metaph.  2a) to make to die i.e. destroy, render extinct
ηὕρισκον: IAI 3p, εὑρίσκω, 1) to come upon, hit upon, to meet with  1a) after searching, to find a thing sought  1b) without previous search

56 πολλοὶ γὰρ ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἴσαι αἱ μαρτυρίαι οὐκ ἦσαν.
For many falsely witnessed against him, and the testimonies were not agreed.
ἐψευδομαρτύρουν: IAI 3p, ψευδομαρτυρέω, 1) to utter falsehoods in giving testimony, to testify falsely,  to bear false witness
1.The word for falsely witnessing (ἐψευδομαρτύρουν) comes directly from the Septuagint rendition of the 10 Commandments, “You shall not witness falsely  , Exodus 20:16. Οὐ ψευδομαρτυρήσεις κατὰ τοῦ πλησίον σου.
2.The irony is that the keepers of the law are violating it.

57 καί τινες ἀναστάντες ἐψευδομαρτύρουν κατ’ αὐτοῦ λέγοντες
And some who arose were witnessing falsely against him saying,
ἀναστάντες: AAPart nmp, ἀνίστημι, 1) to cause to rise up, raise up  1a) raise up from laying down  1b) to raise up from the dead

58 ὅτι Ἡμεῖς ἠκούσαμεν αὐτοῦ λέγοντος ὅτι Ἐγὼ καταλύσω τὸν ναὸν τοῦτον τὸν χειροποίητον καὶ διὰ τριῶν ἡμερῶν ἄλλον ἀχειροποίητον οἰκοδομήσω:
“We heard him saying ‘I will destroy this temple made by hand and in three days I will build another not made by hand.”
Καταλύσω: FAI 1s, καταλύω, 1) to dissolve, disunite  1a) to destroy, demolish
οἰκοδομήσω: FAI 1s, οἰκοδομέω, 1) to build a house, erect a building 1a) to build 1b) to restore

59 καὶ οὐδὲ οὕτως ἴση ἦν ἡ μαρτυρία αὐτῶν.
And none of their testimonies was in agreement.
1. From a lynch mob to a kangaroo court.

60 καὶ ἀναστὰς ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς εἰς μέσον ἐπηρώτησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν λέγων, Οὐκ ἀποκρίνῃ οὐδέν; τί οὗτοί σου καταμαρτυροῦσιν;
And the high priest, rising in their midst interrogated Jesus saying, “Do you not have an answer? What are these witnessing against you?
ἀναστὰς: AAPart, nsm, ἀνίστημι, 1) to cause to rise up, raise up  1a) raise up from laying down  1b) to raise up from the dead
ἐπηρώτησεν: AAI 3s, ἐπερωτάω, 1) to accost one with an enquiry, put a question to, enquiry of,  ask, interrogate
καταμαρτυροῦσιν: καταμαρτυρέω witness against

61 ὁ δὲ ἐσιώπα καὶ οὐκ ἀπεκρίνατο οὐδέν. πάλιν ὁ ἀρχιερεὺς ἐπηρώτα αὐτὸν καὶ λέγει αὐτῷ, Σὺ εἶ ὁ Χριστὸς ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ εὐλογη τοῦ;
Yet he was silent and did not answer nothing. Again the chief priest was interrogating him and says to him, “Are you the Christ the son of the blessed one?”
ἐσιώπα: IAI 3s, σιωπάω, 1) to be silent, hold one's peace
ἐπηρώτα: IAI 3s, ἐπερωτάω, 1) to accost one with an enquiry, put a question to, enquiry of,  ask, interrogate

62 ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν, Ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ ὄψεσθε τὸν υἱὸν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐκ δεξιῶν καθήμενον τῆς δυνάμεως καὶ ἐρχόμενον μετὰ τῶν νεφελῶν τοῦ οὐρανοῦ.
Yet Jesus said, “I am, and you will see the son of the man seated at the right hand of power and coming with the clouds of heaven.
ὄψεσθε: FMI 2p, ὁράω, 1) to see with the eyes  2) to see with the mind, to perceive, know
καθήμενον: PMPart asm, κάθημαι, 1) to sit down, seat one's self  2) to sit, be seated, of a place occupied
ἐρχόμενον: PMPart asm, ἔρχομαι, 1) to come  1a) of persons  1a1) to come from one place to another, and used both of  persons arriving and of those returning
1. To the false witnesses’ reports, Jesus answers nothing. To a direct question, he answers.
2. Instead of following the train of thought regarding “the Christ, the son of the blessed one,” Jesus invokes the language of the suffering servant and of Daniel.

63ὁ δὲ ἀρχιερεὺς διαρρήξας τοὺς χιτῶνας αὐτοῦ λέγει, Τί ἔτι χρείαν ἔχομεν μαρτύρων;
Yet the chief priest tore his robe saying, “What need do we have of witnesses?”
διαρρήξας: AAPart, nsm,
1.This is a strategy change. First, they sought witnesses but found none. Then, they heard false witnesses whose testimonies were inconsistent. Then, the Chief Priest demanded that Jesus offer an answer to the false witnesses’ inconsistent testimony. Finally, the Chief Priest drops the pretense and asks why they need witnesses.
2. It is not entirely clear whose robe the chief priest tore - his or Jesus'. I’ve always assumed it was his own robe as a sign of offense at Jesus’ “blasphemy.”

64 ἠκούσατε τῆς βλασφημίας: τί ὑμῖν φαίνεται; οἱ δὲ πάντες κατέκριναν αὐτὸν ἔνοχον εἶναι θανάτου.
You have heard the blasphemy; What appears to you?” Yet all of them judged him to be having death.
κατέκριναν: AAI 3p, κατακρίνω 1) to give judgment against, to judge worthy of punishment

65 Καὶ ἤρξαντό τινες ἐμπτύειν αὐτῷ καὶ περικαλύπτειν αὐτοῦ τὸ πρόσωπον καὶ κολαφίζειν αὐτὸν καὶ λέγειν αὐτῷ, Προφήτευσον, καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ῥαπίσμασιν αὐτὸν ἔλαβον.
And some came to spit on him and to cover up the face of him and to punch him and to say to him, “Prophesy,” and the guards took him with slaps.
ἐμπτύειν: PAInf, ἐμπτύω, 1) to spit upon
περικαλύπτειν: PAInf, περικαλύπτω, 1) to cover all around, to cover up, cover over
κολαφίζειν: PAInf, κολαφίζω, 1) to strike with the fist, give one a blow with the fist  2) to maltreat, treat with violence and contumely
Προφήτευσον: AAImpv 2s, προφητεύω, prophesy

ῥαπίσμασιν: dpn, ῥάπισμα strike with the palm of one's hand, literally they threw him smart blows.

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